Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine

List of Publications:

current publications can be found here:


76. Hottmann I, Borisova M, Schäffer C, Mayer C: Peptidoglycan Salvage Enables the Periodontal Pathogen Tannerella forsythia to Survive within the Oral Microbial Community. Microb Physiol 2021. doi: 10.1159/000516751

75. Walter A, Friz S, Mayer C (2021) Chitin, Chitin Oligosaccharide, and Chitin Disaccharide Metabolism of Escherichia coli Revisited: Reassignment of the Roles of ChiA, ChbR, ChbF, and ChbG. Microb Physiol,

74. Müller M, Calvert C, Hottmann I, Kluj RM, Teufel T, Balbuchta K, Engelbrecht A, Selim KA, Xu Q, Borisova M, Titz A, Mayer C (2021) The exo-β- N -acetylmuramidase NamZ from Bacillus subtilis is the founding member of a family of exo-lytic peptidoglycan hexosamini-dases, 296: 100519;

73. Müller M, Calvert C, Hottmann I, Kluj RM, Teufel T, Balbuchta K, Engelbrecht A, Selim KA, Xu Q, Borisova M, Titz A, Mayer C (2021) Exo-β-N-acetylmuramidase NamZ of Bacillus subtilis is the founding member of a family of exo-lytic peptidoglycan

hexosaminidases. Peprint on BioRxiv



72. Horvatek P, Salzer A, Hanna AMF, Gratani FL, Keinhörster D, Korn N, Borisova M, Mayer C, Rejman D, Mäder U, Wolz C. (2020) Inducible expression of (pp)pGpp synthetases in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with activation of stress response genes. PLoS Genet. 16(12):e1009282. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1009282.


71. Mayer VMT, Tomek MB, Figl R, Borisova M, Hottmann I, Blaukopf M, Altmann F, Mayer C*, Schäffer C*. (2020) Utilization of different MurNAc sources by the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia and role of the inner membrane transporter AmpG. BMC Microbiol. 20(1):352. doi: 10.1186/s12866-020-02006-z. *shared senior authorships


70. Walter A, Unsleber S, Rismondo J, Jorge AM, Peschel A, Gründling A, Mayer C. (2020) Phosphoglycerol-type wall and lipoteichoic acids are enantiomeric polymers differentiated by the stereospecific glycerophosphodiesterase GlpQ. J Biol Chem. 295(12):4024-4034. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.012566. Erratum in: J Biol Chem. 2020 Jun 26;295(26):8873.


69. Walter A, Unsleber S, Rismondo J, Jorge AM, Peschel A, Gründling A, Mayer C. (2020) Phosphoglycerol-type wall- and lipoteichoic acids are enantiomeric polymers differentially cleaved by the stereospecific glycerophosphodiesterase GlpQ. submitted to JBC (2020/012566),  preprint on BioRxiv, doi: 10.1101/2020.01.08.899310.


68. Sonnabend MS*, Klein K*, Beier S, Angelov A, Kluj R, Mayer C, Groß C, Hofmeister K, Beuttner A, Willmann M, Peter S, Oberhettinger P, Schmidt A, Autenrieth IB, Schütz M, Bohn E. (2020) Identification of drug resistance determinants in a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by high-density transposon mutagenesis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 64(3):e01771-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01771-19. *shared first authorships



67. Mayer VMT, Hottmann I, Figl R, Altmann F, Mayer C*, Schäffer C.* (2019) Peptidoglycan-type analysis of the N-acetylmuramic acid auxotrophic oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia and reclassification of the peptidoglycan-type of Porphyromonas gingivalis. BMC Microbiol. 19(1). doi: 10.1186/s12866-019-1575-7. *shared senior authorships


66. Dörr T, Moynihan PJ, Mayer C. (2019) Editorial: Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics. Front Microbiol 10: 2051.doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02051


65. Mayer C. (2019) Peptidoglycan Recycling, a Promising Target for Antibiotic Adjuvants in Antipseudomonal Therapy. J Infect Dis 220(11): 1713-1715. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiz378


64. Mayer C*, Kluj RM, Mühleck M, Walter A, Unsleber S, Hottmann I, Borisova M. (2019) Bacteria's different ways to recycle their own cell wall. Int J Med Microbiol 309(7):151326. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2019.06.006. * senior authorship


63. Vollmer B, Steblau N, Ladwig N, Mayer C, Macek B, Mitousis L, Sigle S, Walter A, Wohlleben W, Muth G. (2019) Role of the Streptomyces spore wall synthesizing complex SSSC in differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Int J Med Microbiol 309(6):151327. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2019.07.001


62. Walter A, Mayer C. (2019) Chapter 6: Peptidoglycan structure, biosynthesis, and dynamics during bacterial growth. In: Extracellular sugar-based biopolymers matrices, Ephraim Cohen & Hans Merzendorfer (eds), pp:237-299. Springer Nature, Switzerland.


61. Kluj RM, Ebner P, Adamek M, Ziemert N, Mayer C, Borisova M. (2018) Recovery of the peptidoglycan turnover product released by the autolysin Atl in Staphylococcus aureus involves the phosphotransferase system transporter MurP and the novel 6-phospho-N-acetylmuramidase MupG. Front Microbiol 9:2725. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02725.


60. Jorge AM, Schneider J, Unsleber S, Xia G, Mayer C, Peschel A. (2018) Staphylococcus aureus counters phosphate limitation by scavenging wall teichoic acids from other staphylococci via the teichoicase GlpQ. J Biol Chem 293(38):14916-14924. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.004584.


59. Gratani FL, Horvatek P, Geiger T, Borisova M, Mayer C, Grin I, Wagner S, Steinchen W, Bange G, Velic A, Maček B, Wolz C. (2018) Regulation of the opposing (p)ppGpp synthetase and hydrolase activities in a bifunctional RelA/SpoT homologue from Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS Genet 14(7):e1007514. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007514.


58. Hottmann I, Mayer VMT, Tomek MB, Friedrich V, Calvert MB, Titz A, Schäffer C, Mayer C. (2018) N-Acetylmuramic Acid (MurNAc) Auxotrophy of the Oral Pathogen Tannerella forsythia: Characterization of a MurNAc kinase and analysis of its role in cell wall metabolism. Front Microbiol 9:19. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00019.


57. Calvert MB, Mayer C, Titz A. (2017) An efficient synthesis of 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid from N-acetylglucosamine. Beilstein J Org Chem 13:2631-2636. doi: 10.3762/bjoc.13.261.


56. Unsleber S, Borisova M, Mayer C. (2017) Enzymatic synthesis and semi-preparative isolation of N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate. Carbohydr Res 2017 445:98-103. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2017.04.005.


55. Borisova, M, Mayer C (2017) Analysis of N-acetylmuramic acid-6-phosphate (MurNAc-6P) acumulation by HPLC-MS. Bio Protoc 7(15):e2420. doi: 10.21769/BioProtoc.2420.


54. Juengert JR, Borisova M, Mayer C, Wolz C, Brigham CJ, Sinskey AJ, Jendrossek D. (2017) Absence of ppGpp leads to increased mobilization of intermediately accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in Ralstonia eutropha H16. Appl Environ Microbiol 2017 83(13): e00755-17. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00755-17.

53. Borisova M, Gisin J, Mayer C. (2017) The N-Acetylmuramic Acid 6-Phosphate Phosphatase MupP Completes the Pseudomonas Peptidoglycan Recycling Pathway Leading to Intrinsic Fosfomycin Resistance. mBio. 8. pii: e00092-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00092-17.

52. Morales AD, Liu Y, Hartman AM, Borisova M, de Sousa Borges A, de Kok N, Beilharz K, Veening JW, Mayer C, Hirsch AK, Scheffers DJ. (2017) Pentapeptide-rich peptidoglycan at the Bacillus subtilis cell-division site. Mol Microbiol. 104:319-333. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13629.


51. Schüller A, Matzner D, Lünse C, Wittmann V, Schumacher C, Unsleber S, Brötz-Oesterhelt H, Mayer C, Bierbaum G. Mayer G. (2016) Activation of the glmS ribozyme confers bacterial growth inhibition. Chembiochem. doi: 10.1002/cbic.201600491. [Epub ahead of print]

50. Borisova M, Gaupp R, Duckworth A, Schneider A, Dalügge D, Mühleck M, Deubel D, Unsleber S, Yu W, Muth G, Bischoff M, Götz F, Mayer C (2016) Peptidoglycan recycling in Gram-positive bacteria is crucial to survival in stationary phase. mBio

doi: 10.1128/mBio.00923-16.

49. Jorge AM, Schneider J, Unsleber S, Göhring N, Mayer C, Peschel A (2016) Utilization of glycerophosphodiesters by Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol.

doi: 10.1111/mmi.13552.

48. Ruscitto A, Hottmann I, Stafford GP, Schäffer C, *Mayer C, *Sharma A (2016) Identification of a novel N-acetylmuramic acid transporter in Tannerella forsythia. J. Bacteriol.

198:3119-3125, *share corresponding authorship,

47. Studer P, Borisova M, Schneider A, Ayala JA, Mayer C, Schuppler M, Loessner MJ, Briers Y (2016) The Absence of a Mature Cell Wall Sacculus in Stable Listeria monocytogenes

L-Form Cells Is Independent of Peptidoglycan Synthesis. PLoS One 11(5):e0154925. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154925,


46. Kästle B, Geiger T, Gratani FL, Reisinger R, Goerke C, Borisova M, Mayer C, Wolz C (2015) rRNA regulation during growth and under stringent conditions in Staphylococcus aureus. Environ. Microbiol.

17:4394-4405. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12867,

45. Jeske O, Schüler M, Schumann P, Schneider A, Boedeker C, Jogler M, Bollschweiler D, Rohde M, Mayer C, Engelhardt H, Spring S and Jogler C (2015) Planctomycetes do possess peptidoglycan. Nat. Communications

6, 7116, doi: 10.1038/ncomms8116,

44. #Renner-Schneck M, #Hinderberger I, Gisin J, Exner T, *Mayer C, *Stehle T (2015) Crystal structure of the N-acetylmuramic acid α-1-phosphate (MurNAc-α1P) uridylyltransferase MurU, a minimal sugar-nucleotidyltransferase and potential drug target enzyme in Gram-negative pathogens. J. Biol. Chem. 290, 10804-13, #

contributed equally, *share corresponding authorship,

43. Bertsche U, Mayer C, Götz F, *Gust AA. (2015) Peptidoglycan perception: sensing bacteria by their common envelope structure, Int. J. Med. Microbiol.

305, 217-223,


42. Borisova M, Gisin J, Mayer C (2014) Blocking peptidoglycan recycling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa attenuates intrinsic resistance to fosfomycin. Microb. Drug. Res.

20, 231-237,

41. Denger K, Weiss M, Felux A-K, Schneider A, Mayer C, Spiteller D, Huhn T, Cook AM, Schleheck D (2014) Sulphoglycolysis in Escherichia coli K-12 closes a gap in the biogeochemical sulphur cycle. Nature 507(7490), 114-117, doi: 10.1038/nature12947.


40. Gisin J, Schneider A, Nägele B, Borisova M, Mayer C (2013) A cell wall recycling shortcut that bypasses peptidoglycan de novo biosynthesis. Nature Chem. Biol.

9, 491-493,

39. Bertsche U, Yang SJ, Kuehner D, Wanner S, Mishra NN, Roth T, Nega M, Schneider A, Mayer C, Grau T, Bayer AS, Weidenmaier C (2013) Increased cell wall teichoic acid production and D-alanylation are common phenotypes among daptomycin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. PLoS One

8(6): e67398,


38. Mayer C (2012) Bacterial cell wall recycling. In eLS. Encyclopedia of life science, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, URL:



37. Reith J, Mayer C (2011) Peptidoglycan turnover and recycling in Gram-positive bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.,

92, 1-11,

36. Reith J, Mayer C (2011) Characterization of a glucosamine/glucosaminide
N-acetyltransferase of Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol.,

193, 5393-99,

35. Reith J, Berking A, Mayer C (2011) Characterization of an N-acetylmuramic acid/N-acetylglucosamine kinase of Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol.,

193, 5386-92,


34. Litzinger S, Fischer S, Polzer P, Diederichs K, Welte W, Mayer C. (2010) Structural and kinetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis b-N-acetylglucosaminidase reveals a unique Asp-His dyad mechanism. J. Biol. Chem.,

285, 35675-84,

33. Mayer C. (2010) Enzymologie des bakteriellen Zellwandrecyclings. (German). BIOspektrum, 5, 593.

32. Litzinger S, Duckworth A, Nitzsche K, Risinger C, Wittmann V, Mayer C. (2010) Muropeptide rescue in Bacillus subtilis involves sequential hydrolysis by β-N-acetylglucosaminidase and N-acetyl-l-alanine amidase. J. Bacteriol.,

192, 3132-3143,

31. Litzinger S, Mayer C. (2010) Chapter 1: The murein sacculus. In H. König, H. Claus, A. Varma (eds.), Prokaryotic cell wall compounds – structure and biochemistry

, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 3-54,

before 2010

30. Mayer C (2008) Enzymology and physiology of the bacterial cell wall recycling and amino sugar metabolism. Habilitation thesis, University of Konstanz.

29. Hadi T, Dahl U, Mayer C, Tanner M (2008) Mechanistic studies on N-acetyl-muramic acid 6-phosphate hydrolase (MurQ): An etherase involved in peptidoglycan recycling. Biochemistry, 47, 11547-11558.

28. Jaeger T, Mayer C (2008) The transcriptional factors MurR and catabolite activator protein regulate N-acetylmuramic acid metabolism in Escherichia coli.
J. Bacteriol., 190, 6598-6608.

27. Jaeger T, Mayer C (2008) N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate lyases (MurNAc etherases). Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 65, 928-939.

26. Draing C, Sigel S, Deininger S, Traub S, Munke R, Mayer C, Hareng L, Hartung T, von Aulock S, Hermann C (2008) Cytokine induction by Gram-positive bacteria. Immunobiology, 213, 285-296.

25. Qu J, Mayer C, Behrens S, Holst O, Kleinschmidt JH (2007) The trimeric periplasmic chaperon Skp of E. coli froms 1:1 complexes with outer membrane proteins via hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. J. Mol. Biol., 374, 91-105.

24. Mayer C, Vocadlo D, Mah M, Rupitz K, Stoll D, Warren RAJ, Withers SG (2006) Characterisation of a b-N-acetylhexosaminidase and a b-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase/b-glucosidase from Cellulomonas fimi. FEBSJ 273, 2929-2941.

23. Uehara T, Suefuji K, Jaeger T, Mayer C, Park JT (2006) MurQ etherase is required by Escherichia coli in order to metabolize anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid obtained either from the environment or from its own cell wall. J. Bacteriol., 188, 1660-1662.

22. Mayer C (2005) Wie Bakterien ihre Verpackung wiederverwerten: Mureinabbau und Recycling. BIOspektrum 5, 616-619.

21. Jaeger T, Arsic M, Mayer C (2005) Scission of the lactyl ether bond of N-acetyl muramic acid by Escherichia coli "etherase". J. Biol. Chem., 280, 30100-30106.

20. Mayer C, Boos W (2005) Chapter 3.4.1 Hexose/hexitol and pentose/pentitol metabolism. In R. Curtiss III (Editor in Chief), EcoSal – Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology.

[Online.], ASM Press, Washington, D.C.

19. Dahl U, Jaeger T, Nguyen BT, Sattler JM, Mayer C (2004) Identification of a phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli required for growth on N-acetylmuramic acid. J. Bacteriol., 186, 2385-2392.

18. Rast DM, Baumgartner D, Mayer C, Hollenstein GO (2003) Cell wall-associated enzymes in fungi. Phytochemistry 64, 339-366.

17. Tolborg JF, Petersen L, Jensen KJ, Mayer C, Jakeman DL, Warren RA, Withers SG (2002) Solid-phase oligosaccharide and glycopeptide synthesis using glycosynthases. J. Org. Chem., 67, 4243-4249.

16. Zechel DL, Reid SP, Nashiru O, Mayer C, Stoll D, Jakeman DL, Warren RA, Withers SG (2001) Enzymatic synthesis of carbon-fluorine bonds. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 123, 4350-4351.

15. Mayer C, Jakeman DL, Mah M, Karjala G, Gal L, Warren RA, Withers SG. (2001) Directed evolution of new glycosynthases from Agrobacterium b-glucosidase: a general screen to detect enzymes for oligosaccharide synthesis. Chem. Biol., 8, 437-443.

14. Mayer C, Zechel D, Warren RAJ, Withers SG (2000) E358S mutant of Agrobacterium sp. b-glucosidase is a greatly improved glycosynthase. FEBS Letters, 466, 40-44.

13. Mayer C, Vocadlo D, Withers SG (2000) b-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: two enzyme families, two mechanisms. Advances in Chitin Science (Peter, M.G, Muzzarelli, R.A.A., Domard, A., eds.), Vol. 4, European Chitin Society.

12. Zechel DL, Mayer C, Nashiru O, Warren RAJ, Withers SG (2000) Turbo-glycosynthases: Enhanced glycosylation activity obtained by substituting serine at the nucleophile position in retaining glycosidases. Biochemistry, 39, 1555.

11. Vocadlo DJ, Mayer C, Withers SG (2000) Mechanisms of retaining b-hexosaminidases: functionally related enzymes, differing catalytic mechanisms. Biochemistry, 39, 1554.

10. Mayer C, Vocadlo D, Withers SG (2000) b-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: two enzyme families, two mechanisms. Advances in Chitin Science (Peter, M.G, Muzzarelli, R.A.A., Domard, A., eds.), Vol. 4, European Chitin Society.

9. Vocadlo D, Mayer C, He S, Withers SG (2000) Mechanism of action and identification of Asp242 as the catalytic nucleophile of Vibrio furnisii N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase using 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-5-fluoro-a-L-idopyranosyl fluoride. Biochemistry, 31, 117-126.

8. Mayer C, Gal L, Warren RAJ, Withers, SG (1999) New glycosynthases: Screening of an enzyme library generated by combined region-directed mutagenesis/DNA-shuffling. FASEB Journal, 13, A1444.

7. Horsch M, Mayer C, Sennhauser U, Rast DM (1997) b-N-Acetylhexosaminidase: A target for the design of antifungal agents. Pharmacology Therapy, 76, 187-218.

6. Mayer C, Rast DM (1997) High-pH anion-exchange chromatography analysis of hydrolysis and transglycosylation catalyzed by chitinolytic enzymes.
In Chitin Handbook (Muzzarelli, R.A.A. and Peter M.G.,eds.), pp. 345-351, European Chitin Society, Grottammare, Italy.

5. Mayer C (1997) Eine mechanistische Analyse von Enzymen der Chitinlyse bei Pilzen. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Zürich, Juris Druck & Verlag, Dietikon (German).

4. Horsch M, Mayer C, Rast DM (1996) Stereochemical requirements of chitin synthase for ligand binding at the allosteric site for N-acetylglucosamine. Eur. J. Biochem.

237, 476-482.

3. Mayer C, Ruffner HP, Rast DM (1995) Assessment of the mode of action of chitinases with anion exchange chromatography/pulsed amperometric detection. In Advances in Chitin Science (Domard, A., Jeuniaux, Ch., Muzzarelli, R. and Roberts, G., eds.), Vol. 1, pp. 108-113, Jacques André Publisher, Lyon, France.

2. Sennhauser U, Mayer C, Rast, D.M. (1995) b-N-acetylhexosaminidases - a test system for new antimicrobials. In Advances in Chitin Science (Domard, A., Jeuniaux, Ch., Muzzarelli, R. and Roberts, G., eds.), Vol.1, pp. 114, Jacques André Publisher, Lyon, France.

1. Mayer C, Horsch M, Linder C, Rast DM (1993) Purification and substrate specificity of a b-N-acetylhexosaminidase from growing hyphae. In R.A.A. Muzzarelli (ed.) Proc. Int. Symp. on Chitin Enzymology, pp. 485, Eur. Chitin Soc., Ancona, Italy.