Dr. André Kretzschmar

André Kretzschmar is a research scientist at the Hector Research Institute of Education Sciences and Psychology. His area of research is differential psychology and empirical educational research. In particular, he examines the influence of cognitive abilities (e.g., intelligence, working memory, complex problem solving) on educational success.

Furthermore, he is interested in the development of cognitive abilities and innovative psychological assessments (e.g., computer-based assessment, ambulatory assessment).

André Kretzschmar was honored with the PhD thesis award of the European Association of Psychological Assessment (EAPA). Furthermore, he has received the Outstanding Reviewer Award from the Journal of Intelligence (JoI) and has been appointed to the Editorial Board of JoI.


Journal Articles


  • Kretzschmar, A., & Gignac, G. E. (2019). At what sample size do latent variable correlations stabilize? Journal of Research in Personality, 80, 17–22. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2019.03.007


  • Kretzschmar, A., Spengler, M., Schubert, A.-L., Steinmayr, R., & Ziegler, M. (2018). The Relation of Personality and Intelligence—What Can the Brunswik Symmetry Principle Tell Us? Journal of Intelligence, 6(3), 30. doi:10.3390/jintelligence6030030
  • Süß, H.-M., & Kretzschmar, A. (2018). Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds. Frontiers in Psychology, 9doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00626


  • Baggen, Y., Mainert, J., Kretzschmar, A., Lans, T., Biemans, H., Niepel, C., & Greiff, S. (2017). Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification. Education Research International, 2017, 1-13. doi:10.1155/2017/1768690
  • Gignac, G. E., & Kretzschmar, A. (2017). Evaluating dimensional distinctness with correlated-factor models: Limitations and suggestions. Intelligence, 62, 138-147. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2017.04.001
  • Kretzschmar, A. (2017). Sometimes Less Is Not Enough: A Commentary on Greiff et al. (2015). Journal of Intelligence, 5(1). doi:10.3390/jintelligence5010004
  • Kretzschmar, A., Hacatrjana, L., & Rascevska, M. (2017). Re-evaluating the psychometric properties of MicroFIN: A multidimensional measurement of complex problem solving or a unidimensional reasoning test? Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 59(2), 157-182. (PDF)


  • Kretzschmar, A., Neubert, J. C., Wüstenberg, S., & Greiff, S. (2016). Construct validity of complex problem solving: A comprehensive view on different facets of intelligence and school grades. Intelligence, 54, 55–69. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2015.11.004


  • Kretzschmar, A., & Süß, H.-M. (2015). A study on the training of complex problem solving competence. Journal of Dynamic Decision Making, 1, 4. doi:10.11588/jddm.2015.1.15455
  • Mainert, J., Kretzschmar, A., Neubert, J. C., & Greiff, S. (2015). Linking complex problem solving and general mental ability to career advancement: Does a transversal skill reveal incremental predictive validity? International Journal of Lifelong Education, 34(4), 393–411. doi:10.1080/02601370.2015.1060024
  • Neubert, J. C., Kretzschmar, A., Wüstenberg, S., & Greiff, S. (2015). Extending the assessment of complex problem solving to finite state automata: Embracing heterogeneity. European Journal of Psychological Assessment31(3), 181–194. doi:10.1027/1015-5759/a000224
  • Neubert, J. C., Mainert, J., Kretzschmar, A., & Greiff, S. (2015). The assessment of 21st century skills in industrial and organizational psychology: Complex and collaborative problem solving. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8(2), 238–268. doi:10.1017/iop.2015.14


  • Greiff, S., Kretzschmar, A., Müller, J. C., Spinath, B., & Martin, R. (2014). The computer-based assessment of complex problem solving and how it is influenced by students’ information and communication technology literacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(3), 666–680. doi:10.1037/a0035426
  • Kretzschmar, A., Neubert, J. C., & Greiff, S. (2014). Komplexes Problemlösen, schulfachliche Kompetenzen und ihre Relation zu Schulnoten [Complex problem solving, school competencies and their relation to school grades]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 28(4), 205–215. doi:10.1024/1010-0652/a000137


  • Greiff, S., Kretzschmar, A., & Leutner, D. (2014). Editorial zum Themenheft Problemlösen in der Pädagogischen Psychologie [Editorial to the special issue: Problem solving in educational psychology]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 28(4), 161–166. http://doi.org/10.1024/1010-0652/a000140

Conference Talks


  • Kretzschmar, A. (2019, June). Towards a Broader Understanding: The Association Between Complex Problem Solving and Non-Cognitive Personality Traits. 6th Meeting of the Association for Research in Personality (ARP), Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA.
  • Nebe, S, Kretzschmar, A., Tobler, P. (2019, June). Realigning Theory with Practice: A Novel Experimental Approach to Study Human Habits in the Lab. 45th Meeting of "Psychologie und Gehirn" (PuG; Psychology and Bain), Dresden, Germany.
  • Kretzschmar, A., (2019, February). Komplexes Problemlösen als transversale Kompetenz: Ein Vergleich der Prädiktion von Schulnoten durch domänenübergreifende und domänenspezifische Kompetenzen. 7th Meeting of "Gesellschaft für Empirische Bildungsforschung" (GEBF; Society for Empirical Educational Research), Cologne, Germany.


  • Kretzschmar, A., Sonnleitner, P. (2018). The validity of lower-order dimensions: A psychometrical investigation of complex problem solving competence. 19th European Conference on Personally (ECP), Zadar, Croatia.


  • Kretzschmar, A. (2017). Der Einfluss konstruktrepräsentativer Operationalisierungen am Beispiel von Komplexem Problemlösen (KPL) und Intelligenz [The impact of construct-representative operationalizations of intelligence: The relation between complex problem solving and intelligence]. 14th Conference on Differential Psychology, Personality, and Psychological Assessment of the German Psychological Association (DGPs), Munich, Germany.
  • Kretzschmar, A. (2017). Construct validity of complex problem solving with particular focus on modern assessment approaches. Invited talk (PhD Thesis Award) at the 14th European Conference on Psychological Assessment (ECPA), Lisbon, Portugal.
  • Kretzschmar, A. (2017). The impact of the operationalization of intelligence: Complex problem solving as an independent construct?. 18th Conference of the International Society for Intelligence Research (ISIR), Montreal, Canada.


  • Kretzschmar, A. (2016). Eine Trainingsstudie zur Förderung der Komplexen Problemlösekompetenz [A study on the training of complex problem solving competence]. 50th Congress of the German Psychological Association (DGPs), Leipzig, Germany.
  • Mainert, J., Niepel, C., Kretzschmar, A., & Greiff, S. (2016). Complex problem solving at work: An empirical construct validation. Symposium: The Changing Nature of Work: Evidence and Implications. 31st Congress of the Society of Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP). Anaheim, California.


  • Mainert, J., Kretzschmar, A., Neubert, J., & Greiff, S. (2015). Determinants of individual occupational careers in the 21st century. Does complex problem solving matter beyond general mental ability? 16th Conference of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), Oslo, Norway.
  • Kretzschmar, A., Neubert, J., Wüstenberg, S., & Greiff, S. (2015). Complex problem solving within the nomological network of intelligence. 7th Szeged Workshop on Educational Evaluation, Szeged, Hungary.


  • Kretzschmar, A., Müller, J., & Greiff, S. (2014). Komplexes Problemlösen und Intelligenz. Neue Erkenntnisse durch neue Diagnostikinstrumente? [Complex problem solving and intelligence. New insights based on new assessment tools?]. 49th Congress of the German Psychological Association (DGPs), Bochum, Germany.
  • Kretzschmar, A., Müller, J., & Greiff, S. (2014). Strategies within complex problem solving. Inquiries into exploration behaviour in MicroFIN. 9th Conference of the International Test Commission (ITC), San Sebastian, Spain.


  • Kretzschmar, A., Müller, J., & Greiff, S. (2013). Classical and transversal cognitive skills in individual’s occupational careers. 15th Biennal Conference of the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Munich, Germany.
  • Kretzschmar, A., Müller, J., & Greiff, S. (2013). Assessment of complex problem solving: The new MicroFIN approach. 12th European Conference on Psychological Assessment (ECPA), San Sebastian, Spain.
  • Müller, J., Kretzschmar, A., & Greiff, S. (2013). Exploring exploration: Inquiries into exploration behavior in complex problem solving assessment. In S. K. D’Mello, R. A. Calvo, & A. Olney (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp 336–337).

Curriculum Vitae

Since 09/2016

Research scientist at the Hector Research Institute of Education Sciences and Psychology, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen (Germany)

02/2016- 04/2016Visiting researcher at the University of Western Australia (Australia)
11/2015Ph.D. in Psychology (summa cum laude) at the University of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)
Topic: Construct validity of complex problem solving with particular focus on modern assessment approaches (Supervisors: Prof. Dr. Samuel Greiff, Prof. Dr. Matthias Ziegler, Prof. Dr. Romain Martin)
10/2012- 10/2015Research assistant and doctoral candidate at the University of Luxembourg (Luxembourg), Department Education, Culture, Cognition and Society (Prof. Dr. Samuel Greiff)
02/2012- 09/2012 Research assistant at the University of Heidelberg, Department of Psychology, General and Theoretical Psychology (Prof. Dr. Joachim Funke)
05/2011- 01/2012Research assistant at the University of Magdeburg (Germany), Department of Methodology, Psychodiagnostics and Evaluating Research (Prof. Dr. Heinz-Martin Süß)
04/2011Diploma in Psychology (equivalent to M.A.; very good) at the University of Magdeburg
10/2005- 04/2011

Studies in Psychology and Economics at the Universities of Magdeburg (Germany), Dresden (Germany) und Sydney (Australia)