Most of the operando experiments are performed in-house; for SMOX they include: DC resistance, AC impedance spectroscopy, work function changes (Kelvin probe), catalytic conversion, Hall Effect and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transformed Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) measurements. In cooperation with ETH Zuerich and Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), operando XAS studies are performed regularly at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble.
More information about operando studies on SMOX: AG Weimar.
In the case of the polymers, the in-house operando techniques are: AC impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, work function changes, mass changes by using quartz micro-balances (QMB) and transmission IR spectroscopy measurements.
More information about operando studies on Polymers: AG Weimar.