Urgeschichte und Naturwissenschaftliche Archäologie

Dr. Jens Axel Frick

Post-Doc, research associate

DFG-Project FR 4015/1-1: „Multi-thematic studies on asymmetrically bifacially backed knives from the Late Middle Paleolithic. Research on equifinality and permutation on Keilmesser with tranchet blow using technological, research historical and experimental approaches“

PCR (projet collective de recherche) „Le Paléolithique supérieur ancien en Bourgogne méridionale

Room 109
Dept. of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology)
Institute for Pre- and Protohistory and Medieval Archeology)
University of Tübingen)
Schloss Hohentübingen
Burgsteige 11
D-72070 Tübingen

Phone, office: 0049 7071/ 29 77 111

E-Mail: jens-axel.frick(at)ifu.uni-tuebingen.de

See also:

Born 7th June 1977 in VS-Villingen, Germany

Research interests

  • Middle Paleolithic, as well as the cultural and technological behavior of Neanderthals
  • Cultural and technological change at the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic
  • Technology, morphology, design, systematic, classification, typology, function, use and raw materials of lithic objects (i.e. lithology)
  • Methods for recording, evaluating, analyzing and displaying stone artifacts
  • The history of Paleolithic research, especially with regard to the naming of spatial and temporal units and the naming of stone artifacts
  • Experimental Archeology (lithic knapping, use of fire and cooking, hafting and composite devises, use and functionality of tools, etc.)
  • Cultural and technological differences between Middle and Upper Paleolithic complexes
  • Excavation and prospection methodology and execution

Doctoral thesis

On technological and spatial patterns of lithic objects. Evidences from the Middle Paleolithic at Grotte de la Verpillière II, Germolles, France. Dissertation in der Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, 809 p. doi: 10.15496/publikation-14816 (Open-Access) [.pdf]

Day of oral examination: July 20th 2016

Abstract:

Sites in Saône-et-Loire were object of early observations about the legacy of stone age people. As early as in the 1860s, first excavations were conducted at Solutré (1866), as well as at Grotte de la Verpillière (1868, that was renamed to Grotte de la Verpillière I in 2006, because of the discovery of another site about 50 m southwards on the same local sub-district Verpillière). Precisely this recently discovered site is object of research in this thesis. This study focusses on lithic objects of three stratified Late Middle Paleolithic layers at Grotte de la Verpillière II in Germolles (municipality of Mellecey, Saône-et-Loire, France) that is a collapsed rock shelter with a corresponding cave tunnel. The analyzed assemblages derive from layers sandwiched between the collapsed rock shelter roof and a former collapse of blocks from the ceiling, situated on the transition from the cave tunnel to the rock shelter. All three assemblages are attributed to the Late Middle Paleolithic and preliminary dated by radiometric methods into the early OIS 3. This thesis is a technological and spatial study that deals with these recently excavated lithic assemblages from a site that luckily did not suffer from ancient excavations. The materials studied were recovered during the 2009 to 2014 field season conducted under the auspice of Prof. Harald Floss (University of Tübingen). It includes analyses about lithic raw material, blank production, reduction concepts, metrics and spatial distribution of lithic objects. The results are compared with observed patterns of the surrounding Middle Paleolithic record and place them in the wider geographical context. The aim of this thesis is to find reliable evidence for classifying the lithic assemblage of GH 3, 4x and 4, and to find patterns that can be compared with other observations on other sites. It is demonstrated that the assemblage of the uppermost Middle Paleolithic layer (GH 3) is clearly associated with assemblages from central Europe because of the presence of Keilmesser and other elements that are common in a Keilmessergruppen context. Levallois reduction is the main concept for obtaining blanks. The assemblages of GH 4 and 4x are quite small but yield evidence for the same association. In the beginning of the study the presence of Keilmesser was foremost known from studies of Desbrosse and others in the 1970s about collections from Grotte de la Verpillière I (Méray excavation in 1868) The study at hand discusses the unifacial and bifacial industries and does not exclude coarse-grained materials such as quartzite to get a good overview of all stratified Late Middle Paleolithic lithic assemblages at the site. Lithic objects of mixed colluvial sediments (that are situated on top of the stratified) are only a minor part of this discussion. It further forms a corpus of observations that are as well present in many other Middle Paleolithic assemblages of the surrounding area (Côte chalonnaise). This study clearly deals with the problem of classification systems for the Middle Paleolithic lithic record and tries to find bridges between French and German systems to build chronological and spatial entities in the context of assemblages associated with Neanderthals.

Magister's thesis

Les outils du Néandertal. Technologische und typologische Aspekte mittelpaläolithischer Steinartefakte, am Beispiel der Grotte de la Verpillière I in Germolles, Commune de Mellecey, Saône-et-Loire (71), Frankreich. Magister's thesis at the Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, 280 p. [.pdf]

The aim of the magister’s thesis was the analysis of unstratified lithic elements attributed to the Middle Paleolithic of the Grotte de la Verpillière I in Germolles, Commune Mellecey. The analyzed material contains finds from collections of the old excavations between 1868 and the 1950s and the excavations of the back dirt of these excavations (leaded by Prof. Floss, Projekt Germolles) between 2006 and 2008. The stratification background of all analyzed pieces is unknown. Therefor all information had to be extracted out of the pieces itself. These data were compared with data of assemblages in the surrounding. By comparison, the artifacts from our site should be from different assemblages (or archeological layers). For example, the bifacial elements can be divided into a Mousterian of Acheulian tradition (MTA, cordiform bifaces) and a Micoquian/Keilmessergruppen/Prondnikian/M.M.O. (Micoquian bifaces, Keilmesser) unit. On the other hand, the unifacial elements contain Levallois, Discoid and Kombewa methods, which also could be divided. The postulated Quina concept (Jöris 2003, Richter 1997, etc.) isn’t present. Around 10% of the analyzed elements are with noches (encoches) and teeth (dénticulés). Also, there are some with an inverse retouch. The Châtelperronian as the following industry can be illustrated with numeral Châtelperron points, Abri-Audi knives and specific laminar cores. The chronological sequence of the postulated Middle Paleolithic units is verified with the help of good dated and intact sites in the surrounding. Micoquian elements are only found in the Northern Burgundy in the context of the OIS 5 (Deloze et al. 1994). The MTA is present in the OIS 4 and 3 (Soressi 2002). The elements with noches and teeth can be integrated in the MTA or in a separated Mousterian with denticulates (Thièbaut 2005). The Levallois components can be part of a Mousterian of type Ferrassie. The newly and in future excavated intact units of the Grotte de la Verpillière I will help to solve the dilemma of subdivisions of the Middle Paleolithic of the site.

Teaching at University of Tübingen

Organisation of exercises and seminars since WiSe 2012/13

WiSe 2012/13

Ü - Floss, Frick, Hoyer: Modul BA 14-2a: Vertiefung II: Auswertung von Steinzeitlichen Artefaktinventaren

Ü – Floss: Modul Ba 11-2a: Material- und Quellenkunde II: Zeichnen und Experimente (Durchführung der Steinschlagübung: Frick & Floss)

SoSe 2013

S - Floss, Frick, Hoyer: Modul BA 13: Vertiefung Ur- und Frühgeschichte: Lithische Technologie für Fortgeschrittene am Beispiel des paläolithischen Artefaktspektrums aus Germolles (Burgund)

S - Floss, Frick, Hoyer: Modul MA 4-2: Sozial-, Wirtschafts- und Technikgeschichte: Advanced lithic technology at the middle- to upper palaeolithic transition – Germolles and the paleolithic record in eastern France

WiSe 2013/14

Ü – Floss, Frick, Hoyer: Modul BA 14-2a: Vertiefung II: Auswertung von Steinzeitlichen Artefaktinventaren

Ü – Floss: Modul BA 11-2a: Material- und Quellenkunde II: Zeichnen und Experimente (Durchführung der Steinschlagübung: Frick & Floss)

SoSe 2014

Ü - Floss, Frick, Hoyer: Modul BA 13: Lithische Technologie für Fortgeschrittene am Beispiel des paläolithischen Artefaktspektrums aus Germolles (Burgund)

WiSe 2014/15

Ü - Floss, Frick, Hoyer: Modul BA 14-2b: Vertiefung II: Auswertung von Steinzeitlichen Artefaktinventaren

Ü – Floss: Modul BA 11-2a: Material- und Quellenkunde II: Zeichnen und Experimente (Durchführung der Steinschlagübung: Frick & Floss)

SoSe 2015

Ü - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul BA 13: Lithische Technologie für Fortgeschrittene am Beispiel des paläolithischen Artefaktspektrums aus Germolles (Burgund)

S - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul MA 4-2: Sozial-, Wirtschafts- und Technikgeschichte: Advanced lithic technology at the middle- to upper palaeolithic transition - Germolles and the paleolithic record in eastern France

S - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul MA 8-2: Kulturhistorische Analyse archäologischer Quellen - Die südliche Bourgogne und ihre Forschungsgeschichte

WiSe 2015/16

Ü - Floss, Frick, Hoyer: Modul BA 14-2b: Vertiefung II: Auswertung von Steinzeitlichen Artefaktinventaren

Ü – Floss: Modul BA 11-2a: Material- und Quellenkunde II: Zeichnen und Experimente (Durchführung der Steinschlagübung: Frick & Floss)

SoSe 2016

Ü - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul BA 13: Lithische Technologie für Fortgeschrittene – Vom Kern zur Grundform: Abbaukonzepte und Klassifikationssysteme

S - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul MA 4-2: Sozial-, Wirtschafts- und Technikgeschichte: Advanced lithic technology – from core to blank: core reduction concepts & classification systems

S - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul MA 8-2: Kulturhistorische Analyse archäologischer Quellen - Die südliche Bourgogne und ihre Forschungsgeschichte

WiSe 2016/17

Ü - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul BA 14-2b: Vertiefung II: Auswertung von Steinzeitlichen Artefaktinventaren

Ü – Floss: Modul BA 11-2a: Material- und Quellenkunde II: Zeichnen und Experimente (Durchführung der Steinschlagübung: Frick & Floss)

SoSe 2017

Ü – Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul BA 13: Lithische Technologie für Fortgeschrittene – Vom Kern zur Grundform: Abbaukonzepte und Klassifikationssysteme

S - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul MA 4-2: Sozial-, Wirtschafts- und Technikgeschichte: Advanced lithic technology – from core to blank: core reduction concepts & classification systems

S - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul MA 8-2: Kulturhistorische Analyse archäologischer Quellen - Die südliche Bourgogne und ihre Forschungsgeschichte

WiSe 2017/18

Ü - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul BA 14-2b: Vertiefung II: Auswertung von Steinzeitlichen Artefaktinventaren

Ü – Floss, Frick, Herkert: Modul BA 14-2d/ MA 1-2: Vertiefung II, Aufarbeitung und Sortierung der lithischen Rohmaterialsammlung (Lithothek) der Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie

Ü – Floss: Modul BA 11-2a: Material- und Quellenkunde II: Zeichnen und Experimente (Durchführung der Steinschlagübung: Frick & Floss)

SoSe 2018

Ü – Floss, Frick, Herkert: Modul BA 14-2d/ MA 1-2: Vertiefung II, Aufarbeitung und Sortierung der lithischen Rohmaterialsammlung (Lithothek) der Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie

S - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul MA 4-2: Sozial-, Wirtschafts- und Technikgeschichte: Advanced lithic technology – from core to blank: core reduction concepts & classification systems

S - Floss, Frick, Herkert, Hoyer: Modul MA 8-2: Kulturhistorische Analyse archäologischer Quellen

Publications

Academic final theses

Frick, J. A. (2010) Les Outils du Néandertal. Technologische und typologische Aspekte mittelpaläolithischer Steinartefakte, am Beispiel der Grotte de la Verpillière I bei Germolles, Commune Mellecey, Saône-et-Loire (71), Frankreich. Magisterarbeit an der Universität Tübingen [.pdf]

Frick, J. A. (2016) On technological and spatial patterns of lithic objects. Evidences from the Middle Paleolithic at Grotte de la Verpillière II, Germolles, France. Doktorarbeit, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen. Online-Publikation: [.pdf]

Articles in journals and books

Frick, J. A. (2012) Kostenki-Enden (Dorsalabbau an Abschlägen). In: Floss (Hrsg.) Steinartefakte vom Altpaläolithikum bis in die Neuzeit. Kerns Verlag. 459-466. [.pdf]

Floss, H.; Hoyer, Ch.; Dutkiewicz, E.; Frick, J. A. & Poenicke, H.-W. (2012) Eine neu entdeckte paläolithische Freilandfundstelle auf der Schwäbischen Alb. Sondagegrabungen in Börslingen. Archäologische Ausgrabungen in Baden-Württemberg 2011, 71-73.

Frick, J. A.; Hoyer, Ch.Th.; Herkert, K. & Floss, H. (2012) Comparative heating experiments on flint from the Côte Chalonnaise, Burgundy, France. Anthropologie (Brno) 50, 295-321.

Frick, J. A. (2013) Kostenki-Enden (Dorsalabbau an Grundformen). In: Floss (Hrsg.) Steinartefakte vom Altpaläolithikum bis in die Neuzeit. 2. Auflage. Kerns Verlag. 459-466.

Floss, H., Dutkiewicz, E., Frick, J. A. & Hoyer, Ch. Th. (2013) Le Paléolithique supérieur ancien en Bourgogne du sud. In: Bodu, P., Chehmana, L., Klaric, L., Mevel, L., Soriano, S., Teyssandier, N. (Eds.), Le Paléolithique supérieur ancien de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest: Réflexions et synthèses à partir d'un projet collectif de recherche sur le centre et le sud du Bassin parisien: Actes du colloque de Sens (15-18 avril 2009). Société préhistorique française, Paris, pp. 331-350.

Frick, J. A. & Herkert, K. (2014) Lithic technology and Logic of Technicity. Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Urgeschichte 23, 129-172. [.pdf]

Frick, J. A.; Floss, H. (2015) Grotte de la Verpillière II, Germolles, France: Preliminary insights from a new Middle Paleolithic site in southern Burgundy. In: Sázelová, S.; Novak, M.; Mizerova, A. (eds) Forgotten Times, Spaces and Lifestyles. New perspectives in paleoanthropological, paleoetnological and archeological studies. Institute of Archaeology, CAS, Brno & Masaryk University, Brno, pp 53-72 [.pdf]

Frick, J. A. (2016) Visualizing Occupation Features in Homogenous Sediments. Examples from the Late Middle Palaeolithic of Grotte De La Verpillière II, Burgundy, France. In: Campana, S.; Scopigno, R.; Carpentiero, G.; Cirillo, M. (eds) CAA 2015. Keep the Revolution Going. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology vol 1 & 2. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp 699-713 [.pdf]

Frick, J. A. (2016) A Late Middle Palaeolithic assemblage containing Levallois and bifacial objects from Saône-et-Loire, France: GH 3 at Grotte de la Verpillière II à Germolles. Journal of Lithic Studies 3 (2). doi:10.2218/jls.v3i2 [.pdf]

Frick, J. A.; Floss, H. (2017) Analysis of bifacial elements from Grottes de la Verpillière I & II (Germolles, France). Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.10.090 [.pdf]

Frick, J. A.; Herkert, K.; Hoyer, C. T.; Floss, H. (2017) The performance of tranchet blows at the Late Middle Paleolithic site of Grotte de la Verpillière I (Saône-et-Loire, France). PLOS ONE 12 (11):1-44. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0188990 [.pdf]

Frick, J. A.; Herkert, K.; Hoyer, C. T.; Floss, H. (in press) Reflection on the research historical discourse of Keilmesser with tranchet blow from the European Late Middle-Paleolithic. Quartär 64

Frick, J. A.; Herkert, K.; Hoyer, C. T.; Floss, H. (in press) Keilmesser with tranchet blow from Grotte de la Verpillière I (Germolles, Saône-et-Loire, France). In: Valde-Nowak, P.; Sobczyk, K.; Nowak, M.; Źrałka, J. (eds) Amici magistro et collegae suo Ioanni Christopho Kozłowski dedicant. Alter, Cracow

Frick, J. A.; Herkert, K.; Hoyer, C. T.; Floss, H. (2018) (Germolles, Saône-et-Loire, France). In: Valde-Nowak, P.; Sobczyk, K.; Nowak, M.; Źrałka, J. (eds) Multas per Gentes et Multa per Saecula. Amici Magistro et Collegae suo loanni Christopho Kozłowski dedicant. 1st. edn. Alter Publishing House, Kraków, pp 25-36 [.pdf]

Excavation and project reports

Frick, J. A. (2011) La fouille de la Verpillière II and l’industrie lithique. In: Floss (2011) Rapport de fouille pluriannuelle 2010-2012. Papport intermediaire 2011. p. 18-24 und p. 25-26.

Floss, H.; Hoyer, Ch. Th; Frick, J. A., Heckel, C. E. & Herkert, K. (2013) Rapport de fouille pluriannuelle. Rapport final et rapport 2012. Lieu-dit: Les Grottes de la Verpillière I & II à Germolles, Commune Mellecey, Saône-et-Loire (71). Sérvice Régional d'Archéologie, Dijon sowie Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte, Universität Tübingen, Dijon & Tübingen.

Floss, H., Hoyer, Ch.Th., Frick, J. A., Heckel, C. E. & Herkert, K. (2013) La Grotte de la Verpillière II à Germolles, commune de Mellecey (Saône-et-Loire). Fouille programmée 2010-2012. Rapport annexe complément suit à la CIRA du février 2013. Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie & Sérvice Régional d'Archéologie, Tübingen & Dijon.

Floss, H.; Hoyer. Ch. Th.; Frick, J. A.; Heckel, C. E. & Herkert, K. (2014) Les Grottes de la Verpillière à Germolles, commune de Mellecey (Saône-et-Loire). Fouille programmée pluriannuelle 2013-2015 Rapport intermédiaire 2013, p. 113.

Frick, J. A. (2014) Les travaux à la Grotte de la Verpillière II en 2014. In: Floss, H.; Hoyer. Ch. Th.; Frick, J. A. & Herkert, K. (Hrsg.) Project Collective du Recherche: Le Paléolithique supérieur ancien en Bourgogne méridionale. Genèse, chronologie et structuration interne, évolution culturelle et technologique. Rapport annuelle 2014. Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Tübingen & S.R.A. Dijon. 99-155.

Frick, J. A. (2014) Le Paléolithique moyen de la Côte chalonnaise. In: Floss, H.; Hoyer. Ch. Th.; Frick, J. A. & Herkert, K. (Hrsg.) Project Collective du Recherche: Le Paléolithique supérieur ancien en Bourgogne méridionale. Genèse, chronologie et structuration interne, évolution culturelle et technologique. Rapport annuelle 2014. Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Tübingen & S.R.A. Dijon. 17-24.

Floss, H.; Hoyer. Ch. Th.; Frick, J. A. & Herkert, K. (Hrsg.) (2014) Project Collective du Recherche: Le Paléolithique supérieur ancien en Bourgogne méridionale. Genèse, chronologie et structuration interne, évolution culturelle et technologique. Rapport annuelle 2014. Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Tübingen & S.R.A. Dijon, p. 500.

Frick, J. A.; Steigerwald, S. P. (2016) Travaux à la Grotte de la Verpillière II. Fouilles programmées pluriannuelles aux sites paléolithiques des Grottes de la Verpillière I & II à Germolles, commune de Mellecey (Saône-et-Loire). Rapport annuel 2015, Rapport plurianuel 2013-2015. Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Service Régional d'Archéologie Bourgogne, Tübingen & Dijon

Frick, J. A.; Steigerwald, S. P. (2016) Rapport des activités à la Grotte de la Verpillière II pendant la campagne de 2015. Fouilles programmées pluriannuelles aux sites paléolithiques des Grottes de la Verpillière I & II à Germolles, commune de Mellecey (Saône-et-Loire). Rapport annuel 2015, Rapport pluriannuel 2013-2015. Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Service Régional d'Archéologie Bourgogne, Tübingen & Dijon

Frick, J. A.; Steigerwald, S. P. (2016) Grotte de la Verpillière II. Rapport pluriannuelle 2013-2015. Fouilles programmées pluriannuelles aux sites paléolithiques des Grottes de la Verpillière I & II à Germolles, commune de Mellecey (Saône-et-Loire). Rapport annuel 2015, Rapport pluriannuel 2013-2015. Abteilung für Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Service Régional d'Archéologie Bourgogne, Tübingen & Dijon

Frick, J. A. (2017) Rapport de fouilles programmée de la campagne de 2016 au Grotte de la Verpillière II. Fouilles programmées pluriannuelles aux sites paléolithiques de Grottes de la Verpillière I & II à Germolles, commune de Mellecey (Saône-et-Loire). Rapport annuel 2016. Abteilung Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Service Régional d'Archéologie Bourgogne, Tübingen & Dijon

Education and waypoints

1997-2000

Vocational education as tool mechanic at Klöckner-Desma

2000-2002

General qualification for university entrance at the TO Freiburg (Abitur)

2002-2003

Civil service at the Naturpark Eichsfeld-Hainich-Werratal, Thüringen

2003-2005

Study of Prehistory, Geology and Ethnology at the University of Freiburg

2005-2011

Study of Prehistory, Geology and Paleoanthropology at the University of Tübingen

21.12.2010

Magister's thesis (Les Outils du Néandertal. Technologische und typologische Aspekte mittelpaläolithischer Steinartefakte, am Beispiel der Grotte de la Verpillière I bei Germolles, Commune Mellecey, Saône-et-Loire (71), Frankreich)

1. 10. 2011

Start of being doctoral candidate

Mai, Aug. & Nov. 2012

AFR grant of the French Ministère de la Culture et Communication: „Expérimentés de chauffe et analyses de matières premières siliceuses utilisé pour les industries lithiques paléolithiques en Bourgogne de sud.

15.10.2013 to 14.10.2016

Academic employee in the DFG project FL 244/5-1

Since 15.10.2013

Member of the new established PCR UMR 6298 ARTeHIS (Le Paléolithique supérieur ancien en Bourgogne méridionale)

Since 15.10.2013

Begin of being scientific advisor of the project B01 (Variabilität der Ressourcennutzung. Raumerschließung durch späte Neandertaler und frühe anatomisch moderne Menschen in Europa) of the CRC 1070 (RessourcenKulturen)

20.07.2016

Oral examination of the dissertation

15.10.2016 to 31.12.2016

Research assistant for Prof. Floss

2.12.2016

Doctoral degree certificate (overall grade 1.0, Magna cum laude)

01.01.2017 to 31.12.2017

Research associate at the DFG project FL 244/5-2

01.01.2018 to 31.12.2020

Project manager and research assistant of the own DFG project FR 4015/1-1

Excavations

Since 2003 participation in excavations in the Middle Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Middle Ages (total over 100 weeks) in Germany, France and Poland.

From 2009 to 2017 practical excavation director at the site Grotte de la Verpillière II, Burgundy, France

Research stays

Since 2011 mainly in museums and with private collectors (Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy, France) in the course of the final theses and project work for FR 244/5-1 and FR 244/5-2 (about 20 weeks), but also further research stays in New York (AMNH), Paris (IPH, MAN), Toulouse (Université Toulouse II - Le Mirail), Lyon (Université de Lyon 2), Stuttgart (Landesmuseum Württemberg), etc.