Terrestrische Paläoklimatologie

Fauna of the Alpine Molasse

A–D: Palaeocarassius sp. A. A—posterior tooth, lateral view (7505); B—posterior tooth, dorsal view (7504); C—anterior (A1) tooth, lateral view (7501); D—pharyngeal bone (7510). E: Palaeocarassius obesus from Sansan (violet layer), anterior (A1) tooth, lateral view (BSPG 1991 XV 31). F: Palaeoleuciscus sp. A, pharyngeal tooth (7537). G, H: Channa elliptica, G—pharyngobranchial fragment (6596); H—premaxilla (6595). I: Gobius sp., premaxilla (16270). J: Albanerpeton inexpectatum, dentary (6518). K: Chelotriton sp., trunk vertebra, dorsal view (6516). L: Salamandra sansaniensis, trunk vertebra, dorsal view (6517). M–N: Triturus cf. marmoratus, M—posterior trunk vertebra, lateral view (6519); N—anterior trunk vertebra, lateral view (6520). O: Pelophylax sp., ilium (6521). P: Bufo cf. viridis, ilium (6508). Q: Latonia gigantea, maxilla (6513). R: Eopelobates sp., ilium (16330). S: Bufo sp., ilium (6509). T, V, W, Y: Pelobates fahlbuschi nov. sp.; T—maxilla (6514); V—ilium (16341); W—frontoparietal (16339; Wa—dorsal view, Wb—ventral view); Y—frontoparietal (holotype; 16338; Ya—dorsal view, Yb—ventral view). U: Pelobates fuscus, recent, ilium (BSPG 1982 X 5582). X: Pelobates sanchizi, frontoparietal (holotype), Xa—dorsal view, Xb—ventral view, from Venczel (2004: Pl. 1 Figs. H–I). Z: Pelobates nov. sp., frontoparietal, Petersbuch 38 B (MN 4), collection Naturmuseum Augsburg (coll. Rummel); Za—dorsal view, Zb—ventral view. AA: Pelobates cultripes, recent, frontoparietal (BSPG 1982 X 2399); AAa—dorsal view, AAa—ventral view. AB: Pelobates syriacus, recent, frontoparietal (BSPG 1982 X 2768); ABa—dorsal view, ABa—ventral view. AC, AD: Chamaeleo aff. caroliquarti, AC—left symphysis (16364); AD—maxilla (7529). AE: Chamaeleo bavaricus, maxilla fragment (7531). AF: Diplocynodon styriacus, hatchling tooth (6526).

A: Lacerta s.l. sp. 1, dentary (16366). B: Lacerta s.l. sp. 2, dentary (6522). C: cf. Miolacerta tenuis, dentary fragment (6523). D: Palaeoblanus nov. sp., intermaxilla (Da: external view, Db: internal view, 5478). E: Edlartetia sansaniensis, left dentary fragment (16393). F: Tropidophorus bavaricus nov. sp., dentary (holotype, 16395). G: Scincidae sp. 1, dentary fragment (16398). H, I: Scincidae sp. 2, dentary fragments (16400 (H), 16401 (I)). J: Bavaricordylus molassicus, dentary (holotype), Puttenhausen B (BSPG 2008 XXIV 1); Ja: labial view, Jb: lingual view, Jc: tooth crowns. K, L, N–P: Bavaricordylus cf. molassicus, Ka: dentary, labial view (16402); Kb: dentary tooth crowns (16402); La: posteriormost dentary teeth (7510); Lb: isolate posterior teeth (7525); N: maxilla tooth crowns (16403); O: anterior maxilla fragment (16403); P: posterior maxilla fragment (16404). M: Ophisaurus sp. I (sensu Ročeck 1984), dentary fragment (6524). Q, R: Ophisaurus sp., dentaries (6527 (Q), 16426 (R)). S: Pseudopus laurillardi, dentary (16413). T, U: Anguidae gen. indet. sp. nov., Ta: dentary fragment (16459), arrow marks the position of the spina splenialis; Tb: tooth crowns (16459); U: maxilla fragment (16460). V: cf. Ophisaurus cf. spinari (sensu Ročeck 1984), maxilla (7527).

Desmanodon crocheti sp. nov. from Kleineisenbach: A, right P4 (reversed, BSPG 1972 XVI 343); B, left M1 (BSPG 1972 XVI 326); C, right M1 (reversed, BSPG 1972 XVI 334); D, left M2 (BSPG 1972 XVI 336); E, right M3 (reversed, occluso-labial view, BSPG 1972 XVI 340); F, p4-m3 from a left mandible (Holotype, BSPG 1972 XVI 323); G, right p3 (reversed, BSPG 1972 XVI 401). A–F, in occlusal view; G, in labial view.

Desmanodon crocheti sp. nov. from Kleineisenbach: right humerus (reversed, BSPG 1972 XVI 2131): A, anterior view; B, posterior view

Small mammals from Münchsmünster. (A–C) Megacricetodon bavaricus Fahlbusch, 1964. A: left m1 (BSPG 1963 XXVI 4); B: right m1 (reversed, BSPG 1963 XXVI 5); C: left M1 (BSPG 1963 XXVI 6). (D–E) Democricetodon mutilus Fahlbusch, 1964. D: left M1 (BSPG 1963 XXVI 7); E: right m1 (reversed, BSPG 1963 XXVI 8). (F, G) Miodyromys biradiculus Mayr, 1979. F: right m1 (reversed, BSPG 1963 XXVI 20); G: right m2 (reversed, BSPG 1963 XXVI 21). (H) Muscardinus aff. sansaniensis (Lartet, 1851). Right M1 (reversed, BSPG 1963 XXVI 22). (I) Spermophilinus besanus Cuenca, 1988. Left m3 (BSPG 1963 XXVI 1). (J) Erinaceinae gen. et sp. indet.. Left m1 (BSPG 1963 XXVI 11).

Amphilagus“ sp. from Münchsmünster; Left (?) m2 (BSPG 1963 XXVI 23). (A) Occlusal view. (B) Posterior view. (C) Labial view

Insectivores and a marsupial from Affalterbach, Bavaria. (A) Proscapanus sansaniensis (Lartet, 1851). Left m1 (BSPG 1987 XX 34). (B) Talpa minuta Blainville, 1838. Right m2 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 35). (C, D) Proscapanus sp.; C: right m3 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 36); D: right M3 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 37). (E) Plesiodimylus chantrei Gaillard, 1897. Right m1 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 27). (F) Amphiperatherium frequens ssp. Left m1–3 (BSPG 1987 XX 25). (G–L) Dinosorex aff. zapfei Engesser, 1975; G: Left m3 (BSPG 1987 XX 31); H: left a1 (BSPG 1987 XX 30); I: right m3 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 32); J: left a1 (BSPG 1987 XX 29); K: left I (BSPG 1987 XX 28); L: left m2 (BSPG 1987 XX 33).

Galerix sp. from Affalterbach, Bavaria. (A) Left M1 (BSPG 1987 XX 26). (B) Right M2 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 16). (C) Left M2 (BSPG 1987 XX 17). (D) Right M2 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 18). (E) Left M2 (BSPG 1987 XX 19). (F) Right m1 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 13). (G) Right m1 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 12). (H) Left m2 (BSPG 1987 XX 11). (I) Right m3 (reversed, BSPG 1987 XX 14). (J) Left m3 (BSPG 1987 XX 12)

Galerix cf. exilis (de Blainville, 1839) from Hammerschmiede 3. A: right D3 ( inversed, BSPG 1980 XXVIII 59); B: right P3 (inversed, BSPG 1980 XXVIII 60); C: right P4 (inversed, BSPG 1980 XXVIII 61); D: left M1 (BSPG 1980 XXVIII 61); E: right M2 (inversed, BSPG 1980 XXVIII 63); F: right M3 (inversed, BSPG 1980 XXVIII 64); G: left p2 (BSPG 1980 XXVIII 65); H: left p3 (BSPG 1980 XXVIII 66); I: left p4 (BSPG 1980 XXVIII 67); J: left m2 (BSPG 1980 XXVIII 68); K: right m3 (inversed, BSPG 1980 XXVIII 69) (from Prieto, van den Hoek Ostende & Böhme, 2011).

Upper dentition of Eomyops catalaunicus (Hartenberger, 1966) from Hammerschmiede (Ham) and Hillenloh (Hil), and E. oppligeri Engesser, 1990 from Kleineisenbach (Kl). a–c P4, d–f D4, g–w M1,2. Reversed teeth: a, k, m, p, u and w. Ham2 BSPG 1980 XXVII 8–11, Ham3 BSPG 1980 XXVIII 328–342, Hil BSP 1979 XVIII 89–91, Kl BSPG 1972 XVI 1765)

Lower dentition of Eomyops catalaunicus (Hartenberger, 1966) from Hammerschmiede (Ham) and Hillenloh (Hil), and E. oppligeri Engesser, 1990 from Kleineisenbach (Kl). a–e p4, f and g d4, h–n m1,2; o–u m3. Reversed teeth: b, d, h, l, n, q, r, t and u. Ham2 BSPG 1980 XXVII 1–7, Ham3 BSPG 1980 XXVIII 316–327, Hil BSP 1979 XVIII 88, Kl BSPG 1972 XVI 1764)


Mayr, G., Lechner, T., Böhme, M. (2022): Nearly complete leg of an unusual, shelduck-sized anseriform bird from the earliest late Miocene hominid locality Hammerschmiede (Germany). Historical Biology doi: 10.1080/08912963.2022.2045285.

Kargopoulos, N., Kampouridis, P., Lechner, T., Böhme, M. (2021). Hyaenidae (Carnivora) from the Late Miocene hominid locality of Hammerschmiede (Bavaria, Germany). Historical Biology doi: 10.1080/08912963.2021.2010193.

Kargopoulos, N, Valenciano, A., Kampouridis, P., Lechner, T., Böhme, M. (2021). New early late Miocene species of Vishnuonyx (Carnivora, Lutrinae) from the hominid locality of Hammerschmiede, Bavaria, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology e1948858 doi: 10.1080/02724634.2021.1948858.

Hartung, J., Lechner, T., Böhme, M. (2020): New cranial material of Miotragocerus monacensis (Mammalia: Bovidae) from the late Miocene hominid locality Hammerschmiede (Germany). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 298(3): 269-284.

Mayr, G., Lechner, T., Böhme, M. (2020): A skull of a very large crane from the late Miocene of Southern Germany, with notes on the phylogenetic interrelationships of extant Gruinae. Journal of Ornithology 161: 923–933.

Mayr, G., Lechner, T., Böhme, M. (2020): The large-sized darter Anhinga pannonica (Aves, Anhingidae) from the late Miocene hominid Hammerschmiede locality in Southern Germany. PLos ONE 15(5): e0232179 https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232179

Böhme, M., Spassov, N., Fuss, J., Tröscher, A., Deane, A.S., Prieto, J., Kirscher, U., Lechner T., Begun, D.R. (2019): A new Miocene ape and locomotion in the ancestor of great apes and humans. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1731-0

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Prieto, J. (2012): The Genus Eomyops Engesser, 1979 (Rodentia, Eomyidae) from the youngest deposits of the German part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin.- Swiss Journal of Paleontology, 131(1): 95-106.

Prieto, J., van den Hoek Ostende L.W. & Böhme, M. (2011): Reappearance of Galerix (Erinaceomorpha, Mammalia) at the Middle to Late Miocene transition in South Germany: biostratigraphic and palaeoecologic implications.- Contributions to Zoology, 80 (3): 179-189.

Schneider, S. & Prieto, J. (2011): First record of an autochthonous community of fluviatile freshwater molluscs from the Middle/Late Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse (southern Germany).- Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 140 (1): 1-18.

Prieto, J. (2011): The Miocene insectivores and marsupial from Affalterbach (North Alpine Foreland Basin, Germany).- Zitteliana, A 51: 297-301.

Prieto, J. (2011): The Miocene small mammals from Münchsmünster (North Alpine Foreland Basin, Bavaria).- Zitteliana, A 51: 291-296.

Böhme, M. (2010): Ectothermic vertebrates (Actinopterygii, Allocaudata, Urodela, Anura, Crocodylia, Squamata) from the Miocene of Sandelzhausen (Germany, Bavaria) and their implications for environment reconstruction and palaeoclimate. - Paläontologische Zeitschrift 84(1): 3-41. DOI 10.1007/s12542-010-0050-4

Prieto, J. (2010): The Middle Miocene mole Desmanodon crocheti sp. nov. (Talpidae, Mammalia): the last representative of the genus in the North Alpine Foreland Basin.- Paläontologische Zeitschrift 84(2): 217-225. DOI 10.1007/s12542-009-0038-0