Inbuilt Dynamics: Context Dependency and Variability of Meaning
The meaning of linguistic entities displays a high degree of variability and openness. In language usage, this uncertainty of meaning is dissolved by context sensitive interpretations in favour of very little variance. Especially for the domain of sentences, it is not yet clear how this identification of specific meaning takes place. Which linguistic mechanisms are responsible for these context sensitive interpretations? How do combinatory principles of sentence meaning interact with pragmatic strategies in an evaluation of meaning?
Project A1 (Maienborn): Combinatory meaning adaptions at the semantics/pragmatics interface
Project A2 (Bauer/Beck): Interpretability in Context
Project A3 (Hinrichs): Corpus-based Semantic Composition Models for Phrases
Project A4 (Meurers): Comparing Meaning in Context: Generalization of Information Structure and Reference Text
Project A5 (Rapp): Meaning Constitution with Non-Finite Verb Forms: Variable Assignment and Meaning Enrichment with Non-Finite Constructions and Other Embedded Structures
Project A7 (Winkler): Focus and Extraction in Complex Constructions and Islands
Dynamics of Cognitive Processes in Sentence Comprehension
A lot is known in syntax about the characteristics of cognitive processes that are triggered by linguistic structures; the sub-processes of online interpretation, in particular the composition of meaning, are far less well-understood. One central question is how the supposed incrementality of cognitive processes can be related to theories of compositional processing. Existing interpretations of Frege's principle of compositionality are based on the sentence as a whole and ignore the temporal dimension of semantic processing almost completely. The size and nature of sub-sentential units to which the various aspects of an incremental computation of meaning refer, and the processes that control the actual composition of meaning in time, are therefore unresolved issues.
Project B1 (Hohaus/Stolterfoht/Ulrich): Incrementality in Semantic Processing
Project B2 (Franke/Jäger/Janczyk): Time Course of Presupposition Processing
Project B4 (Kaup/Leuthold): The Experiential Simulation View of Language Comprehension: How is Sentence Meaning Composed?
Project B7 (Ulrich/Maienborn): Language Processing and Temporal Cognition
Project B8 (Stolterfoht): Position and Interpretation: Syntactic, Semantic and Information-Structural Constraints in Processing Adjuncts
Project B9 (Friedrich/Weber): Getting a Grip on Non-Linear Meaning: The Dynamics of Understanding Idiomatic Expressions in Language Learners
The Grammar as a Dynamic System: Semantic Variation and Variability
Research in crosslinguistic variation has traditionally focused on morphology and syntax. Mechanisms of interpretation have commonly been regarded as universal. However, linguistic structures describing the same state of affairs often seem to differ substantially in individual languages. It is therefore reasonable to also expect variation within the semantic component of grammar. - What are the possibilities and limitations of such semantic variation? Where and how is semantic variation located in a given grammar? How did it develop, and what possibilities are there for language change? In how far does language change obey universal laws or tendencies?
Project C1 (Beck): Variation in the Interpretation Component of the Grammar
Project C2 (Berger): Verbal Aspect in Context: Contextual Dynamization vs. Grammar
Project C6 (Axel-Tober/Featherston): Position and Interpretation: The Expression of Extra-Propositional Meaning - Diachrony and Synchrony
Project C7 (Dessì Schmid/Mihatsch): Verbal and Nominal Aspectuality between Lexicon and Grammar