Location maps of study area, sections and bentonites, and sketch map of the Molasse Basin. Abbreviations: KRU Krumbad bentonite, ZAH Zahling-2 glass-tuff, HA Hachelstuhl bentonite, UNE Unterneul bentonite (the Heilsberg, Hegau bentonite is outside the map).
Synoptic chart of the proposed chronology for the Lower to Middle Miocene sediments in the Bavarian part of the NAFB: lithostratigraphic units (according to Doppler et al. 2005; UL Limnische Untere Serie, UF Fluviatile Untere Serie, NV Nördlicher Vollschotter) and stratigraphic coverage of studied sections (red bars; including those from the eastern part of the basin, see Abdul Aziz et al. 2008; for the geographic position of sections see Fig. 1). 1 Marine Molasse, 2 Grimmelﬁngen beds, 3 Kirchberg Formation, 4 Sand–Kalkmergel–Serie and untere Bunte Mergel Serie, 5 Oncophora beds, 6 Ortenburg gravel, 7 UL at Ofﬁngen, 8 limnic freshwater beds, Feinkörnige Deckschichten, 9 Albstein, 10 ﬂuvial freshwater beds, 11 UL at Ichenhausen, 12 UF at Untereichen-Altenstadt, 13 NV lower part, 14 Quarzrestschotter, 15 Su¨ßwasserkalk, 16 UF at Burtenbach, 17 Zahling-2 glass-tuff, 18 NV early upper part, 19 Krumbad bentonite, 20 UF at Mohrenhausen, 21 Oberschoneberg bentonite, 22 Unterneul bentonite, 23 Zwischenmergel, 24 Brock-horizon, 25 UF at Ziemetshausen, 26 Geröllsande, 27 NV late upper part, 28 Thannhausen bentonite, 29 Laimering bentonite, 30 Landshut area bentonites, 31 Lower Bavarian bentonites, 32 Sand-Mergel-Decke, 33 Lower Laimering Series, Ubergangsschichten, 34 Steinbalmensande, 35 obere Bunte Mergel-Serie, 36 UF at Oberbernbach. OFF Ofﬁngen section, ICH Ichenhausen section, UA Untereichen-Altenstadt section, PUT Puttenhausen section, FTH Furth section, UWB Unterwattenbach section, UEB Unterempfenbach section, SZ Sandelzhausen section, BRR Bruckberg section, PFZ Pfaffenzell section, OBB Oberbernbach section, KRE Kreut section. Colors: light gray hiatus, blue marine sediments, light blue brackish sediments, pink paleosols, green ﬁne-grained freshwater sediments, light green sands, yellow and orange coarse-grained sediments. Black ellipses indicate 40Ar/39Ar-dated volcanic ashes, gray ellipses are non-dated ashes. (Note that the chronology of sediments older than 17.6 Myr is still tentative).
(a) Map of Central Europe together with topographic map of the study area with the location of the Irsee drill core and the Hammerschmiede section. (b+c) Geological profiles with organic rich layers (ʻcoal layersʼ). (b) Lithological column of the drill core labeled with topographic (left) and height below surface of the drill core (right). The latter is used as reference in all following figures. (c) Two profiles from the Hammerschmiede (HAM) section, which are 50 m apart, with stratigraphic height above ground are shown. The correlation with Irsee (dotted lines) is based on the topographic height. Magnetostratigraphic samples were taken from profile 1, the paleontological sites HAM 5 and HAM 4 are situated in profile 2. (d) Cross section ranging from the Irsee drill core to the Hammerschmiede section, which is also marked with a black line in (a).
Kirscher, U., Prieto, J., Bachtadse, V., Abdul Aziz, H., Doppler, G., Hagmaier, M., Böhme, M. (2016): A biochronologic tie-point for the base of the Tortonian stage in European terrestrial settings: Magnetostratigraphy of the topmost Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments of the North Alpine Foreland Basin in Bavaria (Germany). Newsletter on Stratigraphy 49(3): 445-467
Böhme, M., Abdul Aziz, H. Prieto, J., Bachtadse, V. & Schweigert, G.(2011): Bio-magnetostratigraphy and Environment of the oldest Eurasian Hominoid from the Early Miocene of Engelswies (Germany).- Journal of Human Evolution, 61(3): 332-339. DOI 10.1016/j.jhevol.2011.04.012.
Abdul Aziz, H., Böhme, M., Rocholl, A., Prieto, J., Wijbrans, J.R., Bachtadse, V., Ulbig, A. (2010): Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the early to middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in western Bavaria (Germany). - Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 99: 1859-1886