Archäozoologie

Viehhaltung und Jagdgewohnheiten während der Maritimen Troia Kultur

Seit Sommer 2004 arbeite ich an meiner Doktorarbeit. Sie beschäftigt sich mit dem Thema „Viehhaltung und Jagdgewohnheiten während der Maritimen Troia Kultur“. In diesem Zeitraum, der Frühbronzezeit, gab es mehrere Kulturen in Anatolien, z.B. die Demircihüyük Kultur, Upper Sakarya Pottery Group (Küllüoba), weiter südlich Beycesultan oder ganz östlich die Karaz Kultur.

Manche von diesen Kulturen zeigen Ähnlichkeiten, in der Keramik oder Architektur etc…, auf diese Weise kann man beweisen, dass sie miteinander bis zu einem bestimmten Niveau Kontakt hatten. Das heißt, dass sie ihre damaligen Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen gegenseitig ausgetauscht haben. In archäologischem Sinne wissen wir genug über diesen Tauschhandel. Die Frage wäre, ob diese Kontakte - oder sagen wir dieser „Handel“ - auch für den Tierbestand gilt. Wurden auch Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen in der Viehhaltung ausgetauscht?

Mein Ziel ist es, bestimmte Antworten auf diese Fragen in den Knochenresten zu entdecken. Dafür muss man die Tierwelt dieser Epoche kennen. Wir, ein archäozoologisches Team aus Tübingen, arbeiten seit Jahren in Troia um einen Teil dieser Fragen beantworten zu können. Daten anderer Fundstellen der verschiedenen Kulturen und Gebiete wurden ebenfalls untersucht und in den Computer eingegeben, um die verschiedenen Ergebnisse miteinander zu vergleichen. Die Arbeit untersucht ein großes Gebiet von Ostgriechenland bis in die anatolische Hochebene. Außerdemm werden die Ergebnisse mit Emar in Nord-Syrien verglichen. In Syrien passierten Entwicklungen, auch in der Viehhaltung (größere Rasse) früher als im Westen. Also könnte man auch die Route der Entwicklung der Haustiere feststellen.

Mit den Art-bestimmten Wildtieren wird man eine Faunakarte des Zeitraumes herstellen und mit Heute vergleichen können. Eine andere Fragestellung wäre, ob verschiedene geographische Gebiete Unterschiede in der Größe der Wildtiere aufweisen. Jagd spielte bestimmt noch immer eine Rolle als Rotfleischquelle, aber wie weit waren die damaligen Menschen noch abhängig von der Jagd? Fragen dieser Art sollen in der Arbeit beantwortet werden. Wildtiere brauchen unterschiedliche Umwelten um zu überleben, d.h. man kann die Umgebung der Wohnhügel für diesen Zeitraum rekonstruieren.

Untersuchte Fundstellen

Dissertation Abstract

This study deals with animal bone remains (only mammals) from Troy I to III, the so-called the Maritime Troy Culture (c. 3000 – 2000 BC, mainly the Early Bronze Age - EBA). The animal bone remains from the excavations reflect basically the red meat consumption of the ancient societies. The data of Troy were compared first of all within the settlement phases to observe the development of the livestock management. Another comparison of the livestock management with Troy’s neighbouring settlements and archaeological sites in West Anatolia should show the similarities or differences within a culture and between the cultures.



The classical methods of archaeozoology were applied to achieve the best results. The animal bone remains were identified according to the respective zoological species and were counted to estimate the proportions of the different domestic animals in the livestock. Bone remains were weighed in order to calculate their contribution to the meat consumption of the inhabitants. The measurable animal bone remains of all kinds were measured to observe the possible chronological developments. Then these results were used to draw conclusions of the domestic animals´ history. Bone remains of all species were classified according to their age distribution in order to determine the killing pattern of domestic animals, which reveals the economical role and the exploitation of the domestic animals.



The first two phases of Troy are very similar in the livestock management. However Troy III shows differences: Pigs were now the main meat suppliers instead of cattle. The reason could be related to the stress periods of the town. An increase of pig-breeding allowed the inhabitants to have an easier access to fresh meat. Sheep were the most kept domestic animals. The role of the sheep-breeding changed economically at the beginning of Troy II by the latest. An early race of Wool-sheep was introduced into the livestock. The archaeological findings are supporting this theory clearly. Hunting played no big role at the beginning of the settlement. This changed quite clearly with Troy II and further in Troy III. The animal bone remains are proving that more and more fallow deer were hunted and brought into the settlement. It is possible that they were used as sacrificial animal. This cult was practiced more clearly in the later phases of the town (TR VI & TR VIII).



The livestock management of all the settlements in the Troad draw an analogous picture. But the earlier settlement phases in Kumtepe (A and B)(earlier as Troy) prove that the pig-breeding has changed in the course of time: during the Early Copper Age period the farmers have kept less pig and with the EBA the proportion of pigs rises clearly in the livestock. This phenomenon could also be observed in Ulucak – Izmir. The reason might be the phenomenon of "Transhumance" groups. Both settlements were left after the Early Copper Age period and they were not used for awhile. The new settlers, at the Late Copper Age or the EBA, were possibly more sedentary, i.e. the pig-breeding was easier to practice.

The livestock management in West Anatolia revealed again a homogeneous picture, particularly in the EBA. Sheep made up the biggest portion of the livestock, except in Karatas-Semayük. However, cattle were the most important meat suppliers. The size of the domestic animals did not become any smaller after their domestication. The biggest differences were found in the wild fauna remains. The existence of wild Equids on the high plateau settlements and their absence on the cost settlements could be explained by the geographic, climatic and ecological differences.


The Maritime Troy Culture was followed by the Anatolian Troy Culture. The archaeological and the archaeozoological findings show that Troy III was not a comfortable period. There was a time of dry-climate in West Asian and the settlements there became smaller or were completely abandoned. It is to be expected that the emigrant people searched for new homes. This westward chain-reaction was possibly the reason of the demise of this era in Troy.