Rothbauer U. Speed up to find the right ones: rapid discovery of functional nanobodies. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2018 Mar;25(3):199-201. doi: 10.1038/s41594-018-0038-4.

Virant D, Traenkle B, Maier J, Kaiser PD, Bodenhöfer M, Schmees C, Vojnovic I, Pisak-Lukáts B, Endesfelder U, Rothbauer U. A peptide tag-specific nanobody enables high-quality labeling for dSTORM imaging. Nat Commun. 2018 Mar 2;9(1):930. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03191-2.



Traenkle B, Rothbauer U. Under the Microscope: Single-Domain Antibodies for Live-Cell Imaging and Super-Resolution Microscopy. Front Immunol. 2017 Aug 24;8:1030. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01030. eCollection 2017

Toulany M, Maier J, Iida M, Rebholz S, Holler M, Grottke A, Jüker M, Wheeler DL, Rothbauer U, Rodemann HP. Akt1 and Akt3 but not Akt2 through interaction with DNA-PKcs stimulate proliferation and post-irradiation cell survival of K-RAS-mutated cancer cells. Cell Death Discov., 2017, 3:17072



Sannino G, Armbruster N, Bodenhoefer M, Haerle U, Behrens D, Buchholz M, Rothbauer U, Sipos B and Schmees C. Role of BCL9L for Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β)-induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Oncotarget, 2016, Oct.4 (epub ahead of print)

Vincke, C; Pellis, M; Baral, TN; Stijlemans, B; Tillib, S; Rothbauer, U; Leonhardt, H; Conrath, K; Magez, S; Wernery, U; De Baetselier, P; Muyldermans, S. Camel antibodies for therapeutic and research applications, 2016, Selected Research on Camelid Immunology, 362-366

Maier J, Traenkle B, Rothbauer U. Visualising epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) using the Chromobody Technology, Cancer Research, 2016, 76(19); 5592-5596

Traenkle B., Kaiser P.D., Rothbauer U. Application of nanobody platform for determination of protein structures. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry; 2016, eds R.A. Meyers, John Wiley: Chichester. DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9548. June 15

Sinnberg T, Makino E, Krueger M.A, Velic A, Macek B, Rothbauer U, Groll N, Poetz O, Czemmel S, Niessner H, Meier F, Schittek B. A novel nexus consisting of beta-catenin and Stat3 attenuates BRAF inhibitor efficacy and mediates secondary resistance to vemurafenib EBioMedicine. 2016, June, Volume 8, 132–149

Groll N, Petrikat T, Vetter S, Colnot S, Weiss F, Poetz O, Joos T.O, Rothbauer U, Schwarz M, Braeuning A. Coordinate regulation of Cyp2e1 by β-catenin- and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 α-dependent signaling. Toxicology, 2016, March 28,350 – 352:40-48

Schorpp K, Rothenaigner I, Maier J, Traenkle B, Jung M, Rothbauer U, Hadian K. Identification of cell cycle modulators using the Chromobody technology in a multiplexed High-Content Screening approach. J Biomol Screen. 2016; April 4, epub

Buchfellner A., Yurlova L., Nueske S., Scholz A.M., Bogner J., Ruf B., Zolghadr K., Drexler S.E., Drexler G.A., Girst S., Greubel C., Reindl J., Siebenwirth C., Romer T., Friedl A.A., Rothbauer U. A new nanobody-based biosensor to study endogenous PARP1 in vitro and in live human cells. PLoS One; 2016; 11(3):e0151041.

Braun M.B, Traenkle B, Koch P.A, Emele F, Weiss F, Poetz O, Stehle T, Rothbauer U. Peptides in headlock – a novel high-affinity peptide-binding nanobody for proteomics and microscopy. Scientific Reports; 2016; Jan 21;6:19211.

Bauer S.M, Kubiak J.M, Rothbauer U, Laufer SA From Enzyme to Whole Blood: Sequential Screening Procedure for Identification and Evaluation of p38 MAPK Inhibitors. Methods Mol Biol.; 2016;1360:123-48.



Rajan M, Mortusewicz O, Rothbauer U, Hastert F.D, Schmidthals K, Rapp A, Leonhardt H, Cardoso C. Generation of an alpaca-derived nanobody recognizing γ-H2AX FEBS Open Bio.; 2015; Sep 21;5:779-88

Maier J, Traenkle B, Rothbauer U. Real-time analysis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition using fluorescent nanobodies. Scientific Reports; 2015; Aug 21;5:13402

Panza P, Maier J, Schmees C, Rothbauer U*, Söllner C*. Live imaging of endogenous protein dynamics in zebrafish using chromobodies. Development; 2015; May 15;142(10):1879-84

Groll N, Emele F, Poetz O, Rothbauer U. Towards multiplexed protein-protein interaction analysis using protein tag-specific nanobodies. J Proteomics; 2015, May 1. pii: S1874-3919(15)00198-0.

Traenkle B, Emele F, Anton R, Poetz O, Haeussler RS, Maier J, Kaiser PD, Scholz AM, Nueske S, Buchfellner A, Romer T, Rothbauer U. Monitoring interactions and dynamics of endogenous beta-catenin with intracellular nanobodies in living cells. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2015; Mar;14(3):707-23.

Borg S, Popp F, Hofmann J, Leonhardt H, Rothbauer U, Schüler D. An intracellular nanotrap redirects proteins and organelles in live bacteria. MBio; 2015; Jan 13;6(1). pii: e02117-14.

Muth F, Günther M, Bauer SM, Döring E, Fischer S, Maier J, Drückes P, Köppler J, Trappe J, Rothbauer U, Koch P, Laufer SA. Tetra-substituted pyridinylimidazoles as dual inhibitors of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 for potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. J Med Chem.; 2015; Jan 8;58(1):443-56



Kaiser PD, Maier J, Traenkle B, Emele F, Rothbauer U. Recent progress in generating intracellular functional antibody fragments to target and trace cellular components in living cells. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2014; Nov;1844(11):1933-1942

Anton R, Bauer SM, Keck PR, Laufer S, Rothbauer U. A p38 substrate-specific MK2-EGFP translocation assay for identification and validation of new p38 inhibitors in living cells: a comprising alternative for acquisition of cellular p38 inhibition data. PLoS One; 2014; Apr 17;9(4):e95641

Strein C, Alleaume AM, Rothbauer U, Hentze MW, Castello A. A versatile assay for RNA-binding proteins in living cells. RNA; 2014; May;20(5):721-31.

Yurlova L, Derks M, Buchfellner A, Hickson I, Janssen M, Morrison D, Stansfield I, Brown CJ, Ghadessy FJ, Lane DP, Rothbauer U, Zolghadr K, Krausz E. The fluorescent two-hybrid assay to screen for protein-protein interaction inhibitors in live cells: targeting the interaction of p53 with Mdm2 and Mdm4. J Biomol Screen; 2014; Apr;19(4):516-25

Gustems M, Woellmer A, Rothbauer U, Eck SH, Wieland T, Lutter D, Hammerschmidt W. c-Jun/c-Fos heterodimers regulate cellular genes via a newly identified class of methylated DNA sequence motifs. Nucleic Acids Res.; 2014; Mar;42(5):3059-72.



Helma J, Schmidthals K, Lux V, Nüske S, Scholz AM, Kräusslich HG, Rothbauer U*, Leonhardt H*. Direct and dynamic detection of HIV-1 in living cells. PLoS One; 2012; 7(11):e50026

Schlossbauer A, Sauer AM, Cauda V, Schmidt A, Engelke H, Rothbauer U, Zolghadr K, Leonhardt H, Bräuchle C, Bein T. Cascaded photoinduced drug delivery to cells from multifunctional core-shell mesoporous silica. Adv Healthc Mater.; 2012 May;1(3):316-20

Zolghadr K, Gregor J, Leonhardt H, Rothbauer U. Case study on live cell apoptosis-assay using lamin-chromobody cell-lines for high-content analysis. Methods Mol Biol.; 2012; 911:569-75

Pichler G, Leonhardt H, Rothbauer U. Fluorescent protein specific Nanotraps to study protein-protein interactions and histone-tail peptide binding. Methods Mol Biol.; 2012; 911:475-83

Pellis M, Pardon E, Zolghadr K, Rothbauer U, Vincke C, Kinne J, Dierynck I, Hertogs K, Leonhardt H, Messens J, Muyldermans S, Conrath K. A bacterial-two-hybrid selection system for one-step isolation of intracellularly functional Nanobodies. Arch Biochem Biophys.; 2012; Oct 15;526(2):114-23

Zolghadr K, Rothbauer U, Leonhardt H. The fluorescent two-hybrid (F2H) assay for direct analysis of protein-protein interactions in living cells. Methods Mol Biol.; 2012; 812:275-82

Wälde S, Thakar K, Hutten S, Spillner C, Nath A, Rothbauer U, Wiemann S, Kehlenbach RH. The nucleoporin Nup358/RanBP2 promotes nuclear import in a cargo- and transport receptor-specific manner. Traffic; 2012; Feb;13(2):218-33.



Pollithy A, Romer T, Lang C, Müller FD, Helma J, Leonhardt H, Rothbauer U, Schüler D. Magnetosome expression of functional camelid antibody fragments (nanobodies) in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Appl Environ Microbiol.; 2011; Sep;77(17):6165-71

Romer T, Leonhardt H, Rothbauer U. Engineering antibodies and proteins for molecular in vivo imaging. Curr Opin Biotechnol.; 2011; Dec;22(6):882-7



Wienken CJ, Baaske P, Rothbauer U, Braun D, Duhr S. Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale thermophoresis. Nat Commun.; 2010; Oct 19;1:100

Bergbauer M, Kalla M, Schmeinck A, Göbel C, Rothbauer U, Eck S, Benet-Pagès A, Strom TM, Hammerschmidt W. CpG-methylation regulates a class of Epstein-Barr virus promoters. PLoS Pathog.; 2010; Sep 23;6(9):e1001114.

Schmidthals K, Helma J, Zolghadr K, Rothbauer U*, Leonhardt H*. Novel antibody derivatives for proteome and high-content analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem.; 2010; Aug;397(8):3203-8.

Resemann A, Wunderlich D, Rothbauer U, Warscheid B, Leonhardt H, Fuchser J, Kuhlmann K, Suckau D. Top-down de Novo protein sequencing of a 13.6 kDa camelid single heavy chain antibody by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Anal Chem.; 2010; Apr 15;82(8):3283-92

Geiger J, Aneja MK, Hasenpusch G, Yüksekdag G, Kummerlöwe G, Luy B, Romer T, Rothbauer U, Rudolph C. Targeting of the prostacyclin specific IP1 receptor in lungs with molecular conjugates comprising prostaglandin I2 analogues. Biomaterials; 2010; Apr;31(10):2903-11

Kirchhofer A, Helma J, Schmidthals K, Frauer C, Cui S, Karcher A, Pellis M, Muyldermans S, Casas-Delucchi CS, Cardoso MC, Leonhardt H, Hopfner KP, Rothbauer U. Modulation of protein properties in living cells using nanobodies. Nat Struct Mol Biol.; 2010; Jan;17(1):133-8



Meilinger D, Fellinger K, Bultmann S, Rothbauer U, Bonapace IM, Klinkert WE, Spada F, Leonhardt H. Np95 interacts with de novo DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, and mediates epigenetic silencing of the viral CMV promoter in embryonic stem cells. EMBO Rep.; 2009; Nov;10(11):1259-64

Schornack S, Fuchs R, Huitema E, Rothbauer U, Lipka V, Kamoun S. Protein mislocalization in plant cells using a GFP-binding chromobody. Plant J.; 2009; Nov;60(4):744-54

Fellinger K, Rothbauer U, Felle M, Längst G, Leonhardt H. Dimerization of DNA methyltransferase 1 is mediated by its regulatory domain. J Cell Biochem.; 2009; Mar 1;106(4):521-8

Muyldermans S, Baral TN, Retamozzo VC, De Baetselier P, De Genst E, Kinne J, Leonhardt H, Magez S, Nguyen VK, Revets H, Rothbauer U, Stijlemans B, Tillib S, Wernery U, Wyns L, Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh G, Saerens D. Camelid immunoglobulins and nanobody technology. Vet Immunol Immunopathol.; 2009; Mar 15;128(1-3):178-83



Trinkle-Mulcahy L, Boulon S, Lam YW, Urcia R, Boisvert FM, Vandermoere F, Morrice NA, Swift S, Rothbauer U, Leonhardt H, Lamond A. Identifying specific protein interaction partners using quantitative mass spectrometry and bead proteomes. J Cell Biol.; 2008; Oct 20;183(2):223-39

Rottach A, Kremmer E, Nowak D, Boisguerin P, Volkmer R, Cardoso MC, Leonhardt H, Rothbauer U. Generation and characterization of a rat monoclonal antibody specific for PCNA. Hybridoma (Larchmt); 2008; Apr;27(2):91-8.

Zolghadr K, Mortusewicz O, Rothbauer U, Kleinhans R, Goehler H, Wanker EE, Cardoso MC, Leonhardt H. A fluorescent two-hybrid assay for direct visualization of protein interactions in living cells. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2008; Nov;7(11):2279-87

Rothbauer U, Zolghadr K, Muyldermans S, Schepers A, Cardoso MC, Leonhardt H. A versatile nanotrap for biochemical and functional studies with fluorescent fusion proteins. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2008; Feb;7(2):282-9



Agarwal N, Hardt T, Brero A, Nowak D, Rothbauer U, Becker A, Leonhardt H, Cardoso MC. MeCP2 interacts with HP1 and modulates its heterochromatin association during myogenic differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res.; 2007; 35(16):5402-8

Schermelleh L, Haemmer A, Spada F, Rösing N, Meilinger D, Rothbauer U, Cardoso MC, Leonhardt H. Dynamics of Dnmt1 interaction with the replication machinery and its role in postreplicative maintenance of DNA methylation. Nucleic Acids Res.; 2007; 35(13):4301-12

Spada F, Haemmer A, Kuch D, Rothbauer U, Schermelleh L, Kremmer E, Carell T, Längst G, Leonhardt H. DNMT1 but not its interaction with the replication machinery is required for maintenance of DNA methylation in human cells. J Cell Biol.; 2007; Feb 26;176(5):565-71



Rothbauer U, Zolghadr K, Tillib S, Nowak D, Schermelleh L, Gahl A, Backmann N, Conrath K, Muyldermans S, Cardoso MC, Leonhardt H. Targeting and tracing antigens in live cells with fluorescent nanobodies. Nature Methods; 2006; Nov;3(11):887-9.

Spada F, Rothbauer U, Zolghadr K, Schermelleh L, Leonhardt H. Regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. Adv Enzyme Regul.; 2006; 46:224-34.

Mortusewicz O, Rothbauer U, Cardoso MC, Leonhardt H. Differential recruitment of DNA Ligase I and III to DNA repair sites. Nucleic Acids Res., 2006; Jul 19;34(12):3523-32


2005 - 1998

Hofmann S*, Rothbauer U*, Mühlenbein N, Baiker K, Hell K, Bauer MF. Functional and mutational characterization of human MIA40 acting during import into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. J Mol Biol.; 2005; Oct 28;353(3):517-28.

Mühlenbein N, Hofmann S, Rothbauer U, Bauer MF. Organization and function of the small Tim complexes acting along the import pathway of metabolite carriers into mammalian mitochondria. J Biol Chem.; 2004; Apr 2;279(14):13540-6

Hofmann S*, Rothbauer U*, Mühlenbein N, Neupert W, Gerbitz KD, Brunner M, Bauer MF. The C66W mutation in the deafness dystonia peptide 1 (DDP1) affects the formation of functional DDP1.TIM13 complexes in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. J Biol Chem.; 2002; Jun 28;277(26):23287-93

Rothbauer U, Hofmann S, Mühlenbein N, Paschen SA, Gerbitz KD, Neupert W, Brunner M, Bauer MF. Role of the deafness dystonia peptide 1 (DDP1) in import of human Tim23 into the inner membrane of mitochondria. J Biol Chem.; 2001; Oct 5;276(40):37327-34

Paschen SA, Rothbauer U, Káldi K, Bauer MF, Neupert W, Brunner M. The role of the TIM8-13 complex in the import of Tim23 into mitochondria. EMBO J.; 2000; Dec 1;19(23):6392-400.

Bauer MF, Rothbauer U, Mühlenbein N, Smith RJ, Gerbitz K, Neupert W, Brunner M, Hofmann S. The mitochondrial TIM22 preprotein translocase is highly conserved throughout the eukaryotic kingdom. FEBS Lett.; 1999; Dec 24;464(1-2):41-7.

Reichert A, Rothbauer U, Mörl M. Processing and editing of overlapping tRNAs in human mitochondria. J Biol Chem.; 1998; Nov 27;273(48):31977-84.


Fluorescent two-hybrid (F2Hh) assay for direct visualization of protein interactions in living cells

WO2009087097A1/ EP2078750A1 / US20100285487 / CA2709701A1

Targeting and tracing of antigens in living cells

WO2007068313A2 / EP1945673B1 / US20090136934

Detection and visualization of the cell cycle in living cells

WO 2011003896 A1 / EP 2451841 B1 / US 8999669 B2