Novel PAMPs and their perception in Arabidopsis thaliana
Peptidoglycan Perception and Processing
SOBIR1-dependent signalling of receptor-like proteins
Identification of Novel PAMPs
Our current projects aim at answering the following questions:
Mari-Anne Newman, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
Naoto Shibuya, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Japan
Gary Stacey, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA
Antonio Molinaro, University of Naples, Italy
Fumiaki Katagiri, University of Minnesota, USA
Friedrich Götz, Department of Microbial Genetics, University of Tübingen
Ulrich Mähringer, Research Center Borsten
Koichi Fukase, Osaka University, Japan
Waldemar Vollmer, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
SOBIR1-dependent signalling of receptor-like proteins
Receptor-like proteins (RLPs) build large protein families in all higher plants. Apart from RLPs with conserved roles in development, an increasing number of RLPs could be associated with functions as immune receptors detecting specific patterns from a variety of pathogens. Recent work showed that functionality of these RLPs, at least those with Leucine Rich Repeats (LRRs) in their extracellular domain, depends on association with the common adaptor kinase SOBIR1 (Suppressor of Brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1)-associated kinase (BAK1)-interacting receptor kinase 1). For instance, SOBIR1 is essential for the function of the receptor-like protein RLP30, which recognizes the novel PAMP SCFE1 from Sclerotinia culture filtrates, and for immunity towards Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea infections in Arabidopsis (Zhang et al., Plant Cell 2013).
We propose that these RLP/adaptor complexes, formed in the absence of ligands, are bimolecular equivalents of genuine receptor kinases (Gust and Felix, Curr. Opin. Plant Sci. 2014). Similar to receptor kinases, activation of these RLP/adaptor complexes seems to require a ligand‐dependent interaction step with co‐receptors like BAK1 or other SERKs (Albert et al., Nature Plants 2015).
Current objectives of this project are:
Matthieu Joosten, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sarah Liljegren, University of Mississippi, Oxford, USA
Erich Glawischnig, Technical University Munich
Frédéric Brunner, ZMBP, University of Tübingen
Pierre de Wit, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
Chris Ridout, JIC, Norwich, UK
Cyril Zipfel, The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich, UK
H. P. Fiedler, Department of Microbiology/Biotechnology, University of Tübingen
Eckhard Thines, Institute of Biotechnology and Drug Research Kaiserslautern
PAMP-triggered signalling pathways
In addition to PAMP perception, we are also interested in investigating downstream signaling events eventually leading to cellular immune responses. A major mechanism of cellular signal transduction during various stress responses is the reversible phosphorylation of signalling components which is mediated by protein kinases such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). MAPKs function as key signal integration points for a vast number of external stimuli that affect the life and death of cells and thus must be subject to rigorous regulation to control appropriate intensity and timing of their activation. Phosphorylation is essential for the activation of both MAPKs and their upstream MAPK kinases; however, their activation occurs normally only transiently, indicating that the phosphate groups of the activation loop are quickly removed. Hence protein phosphatases are likely to be important regulators of signalling through MAPK cascades. In collaboration with Irute Meskiene’s lab in Vienna and Roman Ulm’s lab in Freiburg we are investigating the role of selected PP2Cs and dual-specificity protein phosphatases with respect to MAPK regulation during the plant innate immune response.
Irute Meskiene, Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna
Roman Ulm, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg
Tübinger Promotionsverbund (Mini-GK): "Of Plants and Men: Principles of Chitin Recognition in Arabidopsis and Humans"
Gust A.A. (2015) Peptidoglycan Perception in Plants. PLoS Pathog., 11(12):e1005275.
Albert I., Böhm H., Albert M., Feiler C.E., Imkampe J., Wallmeroth N., Brancato C., Raaymakers T.M., Oome S., Zhang H., Krol E., Grefen C., Gust A.A., Chai J., Hedrich R. , Van den Ackerveken G., Nürnberger T. (2015) An RLP23–SOBIR1–BAK1 complex mediates NLP-triggered immunity. Nature Plants, doi:10.1038/nplants.2015.140.
Bertsche U., Mayer C., Götz F., Gust A.A. (2015) Peptidoglycan perception – sensing bacteria by their common envelope structure. Int. J. Med. Microbiol., 305, 217-223.
Gust A.A., Felix G. (2014) Receptor like proteins associate with SOBIR1-type of adaptors to form bimolecular receptor kinases. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 21, 104-111.
Petutschnig E.K., Stolze M., Lipka U., Kopischke M., Horlacher J., Valerius O., Rozhon W., Gust A.A., Kemmerling B., Poppenberger B., Braus G.H., Nürnberger T., Lipka V. (2014) A novel Arabidopsis CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) mutant with enhanced pathogen-induced cell death and altered receptor processing. New Phytol., 204, 955-967.
Liu X., Grabherr H.M., Willmann R., Kolb D., Brunner F., Bertsche U., Kühner D., Franz-Wachtel M., Amin B., Felix G., Ongena M., Nürnberger T., Gust A.A. (2014) Host-induced bacterial cell wall decomposition mediates pattern-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. Elife, 3. doi: 10.7554/eLife.01990.
Willmann R., Haischer D.J., Gust A.A. (2014) Analysis of MAPK activities using MAPK-specific antibodies. Methods Mol. Biol., 1171, 27-37.
Zhang W., Fraiture M., Kolb D., Löffelhardt B., Desaki Y., Boutrot F.F., Tör M., Zipfel C., Gust A.A., Brunner F. (2013) Arabidopsis receptor-like protein30 and receptor-like kinase suppressor of BIR1-1/EVERSHED mediate innate immunity to necrotrophic fungi. Plant Cell, 25, 4227-4241.
Gust A.A., Nürnberger T. (2012) Plant immunology: A life or death switch. Nature, 486,198-199.
Gust A.A., Willmann R., Desaki Y., Grabherr H.M., Nürnberger T. (2012) Plant LysM proteins: modules mediating symbiosis and immunity. Trends Plant Sci., 17, 495-502.
Willmann R., Lajunen H.M., Erbs G., Newman M.A., Kolb D., Tsuda K., Katagiri F., Fliegmann J., Bono J.J., Cullimore J.V., Jehle A.K., Götz F., Kulik A., Molinaro A., Lipka V., Gust A.A., Nürnberger T. (2011). Arabidopsis lysin-motif proteins LYM1 LYM3 CERK1 mediate bacterial peptidoglycan sensing and immunity to bacterial infection. PNAS, 108, 19824-19829.
Lenz H.D., Vierstra R.D., Nürnberger T., Gust A.A. (2011) ATG7 contributes to plant basal immunity towards fungal infection. Plant Sign. Beh. [Epub ahead of print]
Lenz H.D., Haller E., Melzer E., Gust A.A., Nürnberger T. (2011). Autophagy controls plant basal immunity in a pathogenic lifestyle-dependent manner. Autophagy, 7, 773-774.
Lenz H.D., Haller E., Melzer E., Kober K., Wurster K., Stahl M., Bassham D.C., Vierstra R.D., Parker J.E., Bautor J., Molina A., Escudero V., Shindo T., van der Hoorn R.A., Gust A.A., Nürnberger T. (2011) Autophagy differentially controls plant basal immunity to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. Plant J., 66, 818-830.
Brock A.K. , Willmann R., Kolb D., Grefen L., Lajunen H.M., Bethke G., Lee J., Nürnberger T. Gust A.A. (2010). The Arabidopsis thaliana Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase PP2C5 affects seed germination, stomatal aperture and abscisic acid-inducible gene expression. Plant Physiol., 153, 1098-1111.
Gust A.A. Brunner F. Nürnberger T. (2010) Biotechnological concepts for improving plant innate immunity. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 21, 204-210.
Bethke, G., Unthan, T., Uhrig, J.F., Pöschl, Y., Gust, A.A., Scheel, D. Lee, J. (2009) Flg22 regulates the release of an ethylene response factor substrate from MAP kinase 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana via ethylene signaling. PNAS, 106, 8067-8072.
Gust A.A., Biswas R., Lenz H.D., Rauhut T., Ranf S., Kemmerling B., Götz F., Glawischnig E., Lee J., Felix G. Nürnberger T. (2007) Bacteria-derived peptidoglycans constitute pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggering innate immunity in Arabidopsis. J. Biol. Chem., 282, 32338-32348.
Qutob D., Kemmerling B., Brunner F., Küfner I., Engelhardt S., Gust A.A., Luberacki B., Seitz H.U., Stahl D., Rauhut T., Glawischnig E., Schween G., Lacombe B., Watanabe N., Lam E., Schlichting R., Scheel D., Nau K., Dodt G., Hubert D., Gijzen M., Nürnberger T. (2006) Phytotoxicity and innate immune responses induced by Nep1-like proteins. Plant Cell, 18, 3721-3744.