After September 11, 2001 much has been done to deter foreign terrorists from attacking Western states. Measures taken include among others the re-organization of national intelligence services, the international coordination of data collection and information sharing, the development of military capacities to combat terrorist networks, stringent counterterrorism and immigration laws as well as efforts to cut financial support for terrorist organizations and to prevent money laundering. Besides human losses, states are concerned about the economic and financial consequences of terrorist attacks. Thus, they focussed on the development of policies to better protect their citizens, economies and markets and to better absorb the impact of future terrorist attacks. Trans-national cooperation on these issues has greatly expanded up to joint military action as part of a “Global War on Terror” and the adoption of a Global Counter Terrorism strategy by the United Nations. Despite these and other significant anti-terror measures that target existing terrorist organizations operating from abroad, only little is known about measures taken to prevent members of our own societies from becoming terrorists.
In 2004 and 2005 terrorist attacks in Spain, the Netherlands and London were conceptualized, planned and carried out by citizens and residents who were sending messages to their own governments. In the United States an increasing number of young people join terrorist networks for militant operations both abroad and at home. These instances left Western states wondering whether it is possible to identify root causes of domestic terrorism that are of general applicability. How do or should countries react to the threat of “home-grown” terrorism? What are the lessons learned? Because combating domestic terrorism is considered internal to the affairs of any nation state these and related questions are hardly debated inter-nationally and in public. Theoretical and practical insights on preventing “home-grown” terrorism are exchanged comparatively seldom.
The International Relations/Peace and Conflict Research Cluster at the University of Tübingen therefore plans a conference on “Radicalization in Western Societies – Preventing “Home-Grown” Terrorism” which will be held on September 8th and 9th, 2010 in Tübingen, Germany. This conference is undertaken with the generous support of the German-American Institute Tübingen, the Ministry of State Baden-Württemberg and the Embassy of the United States in Germany. Representatives of these institutions will also attend the conference and contribute their valuable insights on the danger of “home-grown” terrorism as well as measures for prevention. As a truly interdisciplinary and international effort, the conference brings together scholars and experts from various countries (the US, UK, Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, Ireland, Italy, Austria and Germany) and from various disciplines. Those invited to this conference are experts on Transnational and “home-grown” Terrorism, experts in Political Science, Comparative Public Policy, International Relations, Comparative Religious Studies, Peace and Conflict Studies, Peace Education, Criminology, International Law or National Security Law, Sociology, Neurology/Psychiatry and Philosophy/Ethics. Most importantly, however, the programme comprises and addresses both academics and practitioners. We are planning to invite leading researches dealing with the issue of preventing (“home-grown”) terrorism from a rather theoretical perspective as well as government employees, activists, policy advisors and intelligence analysts. While several internal workshops are reserved for those specialized in the issue area, the public lectures are open for everyone who wishes to participate due to personal interest.
|WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8th, 2010|
|2:30-3:00 pm||Welcome Address/Opening Remarks by the Organizes|
|3:00-5:00 pm||Internal Workshop Session I: “Radicalization across Issue Areas”|
|5:30-6:00 pm|| Public Welcome Addresses |
Heribert Rech, MdL, Minister of the Interior, Baden-Württemberg
Philip D. Murphy, United States Ambassador to Germany
|6:00-7:00 pm|| Public Lecture I: “Radicalization: Academic Knowledge and Practical Realities” |
Speaker: Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen
|7:00-8:00 pm|| Public Roundtable I: “Radicalization across Issue-Areas” |
Chair: Andreas Hasenclever
Participants: Marie-Janine Calic, Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen, Clark McCauley, Karl Cordell, Hans G. Kippenberg, John Sorenson and Martin Balluch.
|8:00-10:00 pm||Welcome Reception |
With Regina Ammicht Quinn, State Counsellor for Intercultural and Inter-religious dialogue, Baden-Württemberg
|THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 9th, 2010|
|8:30 – 9:30 am|| Public Lecture II: “The Cultural Context of Terrorism” |
Speaker: Michele J. Gelfand
|9:45 -10:45 am|| Public Lecture III: “The Terrorist Mind: The Inner Perspective” |
Speaker: Arie Kruglanski
|11:30-12:00 am|| Public Lecture IV: “What Makes a Terrorist: The Outer Perspective” |
Speaker: : Tim Krieger
|2:00-4:00pm||Internal Workshop Session II: “”Home-Grown” Terrorism – The National Perspective”|
|4:30-5:30 pm|| Public Lecture V: “Preventing “Home-Grown” Terrorism in Europe” |
Speaker: Magnus Ranstorp
|5:30-7:00pm|| Public Roundtable II: “Preventing “Home-Grown” Terrorism” |
Chair: Andreas Hasenclever
Participants: Edwin Bakker, Anthony Celso, Daveed Gartenstein-Ross; Magnus Ranstorp and Guido Steinberg
|7:00-7:30pm||Farewell Address / Concluding Remarks|
The first internal workshop and roundtable session deal with processes of radicalization in Western societies across issue areas. Religious, political, ethnic, moral and ecological radi-calization of attitudes and respective behaviour of certain groups in society will be discussed. What makes a society susceptible to radicalization? What is “radical” behaviour? Are certain issues more likely to become radicalized than others? Are processes of radicalization compa-rable across issue areas? Did the scale, nature or pace of radicalization processes change after the end of the Cold War, with increasing globalization or after September 11? What is the role of the media? When does (non-violent) civil disobedience stop and terrorism start?
Understanding the radicalization processes that drive previously “unremarkable” people to become terrorists seems vital for developing suitable and effective counterterrorism strategies. Therefore, the first public lecture deals with the final step that leads radicalized individuals to actively engage in transnational or domestic terrorist networks. The lecture takes a social movement perspective asking under what internal and external conditions movements change their contending strategies and turn violent. Are religious movements at higher risk to produce terrorist networks or do all social movements follow a similar logic as recent studies on po-litical violence in the Middle East suggest?
The second and third public lectures explore the characteristics of individual participants in terrorism and the questions where terror emerges i.e. the socio-economic and political deter- minants of terrorism. The question whether “the terrorist mind” can be described by a specific set of psychological characteristics is as much contested as the question of what drives a ter-rorist in terms of individual beliefs and values.
Who becomes a terrorist? What makes the individual susceptible or immune to radical mes-sages? Do specific sets of religious or cultural values have a greater likelihood of producing terrorism? Are such questions permissible and, if so, can they be answered? While the second public lecture applies this rather descriptive “inner perspective” the following third public lecture takes a more structural approach. It tries to identify socio-economic and political cor-relates of terrorism and therefore adds the “outer perspective”. Where does terrorism emerge? What do the biographies of terrorists tell us? Is terrorism more likely to emerge in less devel-oped countries or societies characterized by high levels of inequality? Absolute or relative economic deprivation and lack of education are often cited as causes or ideal breeding grounds for terrorism. Why then did most terrorists who participated in the September 11 attacks come from rather developed countries and college-educated backgrounds? This discus-sion is of utmost political relevance because it directly leads to the question of whether eco-nomic aid can be a suitable anti-terror measure. Furthermore, the transformation of a Western-based individual to a terrorist is unlikely to be triggered by grievance such as political oppres-sion, suffering, revenge or desperation. The failure to integrate the 2nd and 3rd generation of immigrants into society might offer an alternative explanation for the rise of “home-grown” terrorism in specific. In order to understand the emergence of international and domestic ter-rorism the different levels of analysis, the “inner” (individual, psychological) and “outer” (so-cietal, socio-economic and political) perspective, need to be taken into account.
While this first part of the conference aims to describe and understand processes of radicaliza-tion in (Western) societies across issue areas and the phenomenon of transnational, domestic or “home-grown” terrorism, the entire second part deals with the issue of preventing “home-grown” terrorism. Within the second internal workshop session , country experts present their theoretical arguments, report on the counterterrorism strategies and policies (of the United States, Australia, the Netherlands, Spain and Germany) and on actual efforts to pre-vent “home-grown” terrorism, to increase awareness and lay the foundation for a peaceful coexistence. This offers a local, case-study perspective on major differences in theoretical and practical approaches as well as successes and difficulties. The aim is to figure out whether there is room for cooperation and exchange of ideas and lessons learned between and within countries, among those involved in the design of strategies and those involved in their implementation.
Accordingly, the fourth public lecture presents the state of the art on the issue of preventing “home-grown” terrorism in Europe. Form a theoretical and practical perspective existing ap-proaches shall be presented and critically discussed. How did approaches evolve and change over time? Are there major differences in approaches between countries or regions?
The final public roundtable</srong> provides the opportunity to bundle insights from the country-specific, second workshop session. Country experts from all over the world are given the chance to exchange their theoretical and practical arguments on how to prevent “home-grown” terrorism. Are the existing efforts sufficient and effective? Is there room for coopera-tion and exchange of ideas and lessons learned between and within countries, among those involved in the design of strategies and those involved in their implementation?
The organizers are planning to publish the outcomes of this conference in an edited volume.
Public Lecture I:“Radicalization: Academic Knowledge and Practical Realities”
|Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen||Dr. Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen is Director of the Preventive Security Department at the Danish Security and Intelligence Service (PET), the national security intelli-gence agency of Denmark. She has previously worked as Senior Researcher and Head of the research unit “Political Violence, Terrorism and Radicalization” at the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS). While working for the DIIS she published two Reports (DIIS Working Paper No. 2008/2 and No. 2008/3) on radicalization processes in Europe (“Studying Vio-lent Radicalization in Europe I: The Potential Contribution of Social Movement Theory“ and “Studying Violent Radicalization in Europe II: The Potential Contri-bution of Sociopsychological and Psychological Approaches“). Dr. Daalgard-Nielsen is a non-resident Fellow at the Center for Transatlantic Relations, Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Washing-ton DC and serves on the board of advisor of the Center on Global Counter-Terrorism Cooperation, Washington DC. Dr. Dalgaard-Nielsen holds a Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University SAIS and has published widely on topics such as terrorism, radicalization, homeland security, peace-keeping operations and transatlantic relations. She has conducted research as an embedded researcher with Danish armed forces in Kosovo, Iraq, and Afghanistan.|
Public Lecture II: “The Culture of Terrorism”
|Michele Gelfand||Michele J. Gelfand is Professor of Psychology and Distinguished University Scho-lar Teacher at the University of Maryland, College Park. She received her Ph.D. in Social Psychology from the University of Illinois. Dr. Gelfand's work explores cultural influences on conflict, negotiation, justice, and revenge. Her work has been published in outlets such as the Journal of Applied Psychology, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Deci-sion Processes, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, and the Annual Review of Psychology. She is the co-editor of The Hand-book of Negotiation and Culture (with Jeanne Brett, Stanford University Press) and The Psychology of Conflict and Conflict Management in Organizations (with Carsten De Dreu, Erlbaum) and is the founding co-editor of the Advances in Cul-ture and Psychology series and Frontiers of Culture and Psychology series (with CY Chiu and Ying-Yi Hong, Oxford University Press). She serves on numerous editorial boards in social and organizational psychology. Dr. Gelfand is currently the President of the International Association of Conflict Management.|
Public Lecture III: “The Terrorist Mind: The Inner Perspective”
|Arie Kuglanski||Dr. Kruglanski is a Distinguished University Professor at the University of Mary-land and Head of the Working Group on “Terrorist Group Formation and Re-cruitment” at the National Center for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). Throughout his career as a social psychologist, his interests have centered on how people form judgments, beliefs, impressions, attitudes and what consequences this has for their interpersonal relations, their interac-tion in groups and their feelings about various "out groups". In connection with these interests he has formulated a theory of lay epistemics (Kruglanski, 1989) that specified how thought and motivation interface in the formation of subjec-tive knowledge. His interest in goals, belief formation, and group processes has led to his involvement in the social psychology of terrorism. Dr. Kruglanski has been writing and teaching a yearly seminar on this topic, looking at issues such as individual and organizational aspects of terrorism, terrorism as a tool of mi-nority influence, suicidal terrorism and other related topics. He has also been member of various panels of the National Academy of Science devoted to the social/psychological aspects of terrorism. As of January 10, 2004 he has been appointed as a co-director of a Center of Excellence for Research on the Beha-vioral and Social Aspects of Terrorism and Counterterrorism, established at the University of Maryland, College Park.|
Public Lecture IV: “What Makes a Terrorist: The Outer Perspective”
|Tim Krieger||Dr. Tim Krieger is currently Junior Professor at the Department of Economics of the University of Paderborn. He holds a PhD from the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich and also studied at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität in Kiel, the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire and at the Boston University. As an economist he focuses on issues such as the public pensions system, immigration or labor mobility in Germany and within the EU. In addition, he has published widely on the causes of terrorism. His and Daniel Meierriek´s article on “Terrorism in the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism” will be forthcoming in the Journal of Conflict Resolution. “Causal Linkages Between Domestic Terrorism and Economic Growth” (with Thomas Gries und Daniel Meierrieks) was published in Defense and Peace Economics and “What Causes Terrorism?” (also with Daniel Meierrieks) appeared in Public Choice. With Daniel Meierrieks he also worked on the education-terrorism nexus and the question whether inequality leads to terrorism.|
Public Lecture V: “Preventing “Home-Grown” Terrorism”
|Magnus Ranstorp||Dr. Magnus Ranstorp is the Research Director of the Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies at the Swedish National Defence College in Stockholm where he is directing a large funded project on Strategic Terrorist Threats to Europe. This project focuses on both radicalisation and recruitment of salafist-jihadist terrorists across Europe. Previously he was the Director of Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) at the University of St Andrews, Scotland. He has 20 years of experience in research on counterterrorism issues, is internationally recognised as a leading expert on Hizballah, Hamas, al-Qaeda and other militant Islamic movements, conducted extensive field work around the world and testified at the 9/11 Commission Hearing. He is the author of numerous articles and monographs on terrorism and counter-terrorism (e.g. Mapping Terrorism Research: State of the Art, Gaps and Future Direction and Understanding Violent Radicalisation: Terrorist and Jihadist Movements in Europe). In addition, Dr. Ranstorp is on the International Editorial Advisory Board of Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict and Critical Terrorism Studies. Dr. Ranstorp has briefed many senior government and security officials from around the world and lectures regularly to most ma-jor universities, think tanks and intergovernmental organisations. He is Advisor to the Terrorism Project on Violent Radicalisation led by the Danish Institute of International Studies as well as Scientific Advisor to the DHS Center of Excel-lence START programme led by the University of Maryland. He is also on the Advisory Board of CSTPV, University of St Andrews. He was a member of an Advisory Panel on Terrorism in Europe advising the EU counterterrorism coor-dinator. In 2005, he was a contributor to the George C. Marshall Center directed project on Ideological War on Terror: Synthesizing Strategies Worldwide (a project funded by the Office of the Secretary of Defence). In 2006 Dr. Ranstorp was invited to join the European Commission Expert Group on Violent Radicali-sation, an official advisory body on all matters relating to violent radicalisation and recruitment of extremists within the EU.This project focuses on both radicalisation and recruitment of salafist-jihadist terrorists across Europe. Previously he was the Director of Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) at the University of St Andrews, Scotland. He has 20 years of experience in research on counterterrorism issues, is internationally recognised as a leading expert on Hizballah, Hamas, al-Qaeda and other militant Islamic movements, conducted extensive field work around the world and testified at the 9/11 Commission Hearing. He is the author of numerous articles and monographs on terrorism and counter-terrorism (e.g. Mapping Terrorism Research: State of the Art, Gaps and Future Direction and Understanding Violent Radicalisation: Terrorist and Jihadist Movements in Europe). In addition, Dr. Ranstorp is on the International Editorial Advisory Board of Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict and Critical Terrorism Studies. Dr. Ranstorp has briefed many senior government and security officials from around the world and lectures regularly to most major universities, think tanks and intergovernmental organisations. He is Advisor to the Terrorism Project on Violent Radicalisation led by the Danish Institute of International Studies as well as Scientific Advisor to the DHS Center of Excel-lence START programme led by the University of Maryland. He is also on the Advisory Board of CSTPV, University of St Andrews. He was a member of an Advisory Panel on Terrorism in Europe advising the EU counterterrorism coor-dinator. In 2005, he was a contributor to the George C. Marshall Center directed project on Ideological War on Terror: Synthesizing Strategies Worldwide (a project funded by the Office of the Secretary of Defence). In 2006 Dr. Ranstorp was invited to join the European Commission Expert Group on Violent Radicalisation, an official advisory body on all matters relating to violent radicalisation and recruitment of extremists within the EU.|
Workshop Session I: “Political Radicalization”
|Clark McCauley||Clark McCauley (B.S. Biology, Providence College, 1965; Ph.D. Social Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 1970) is Rachel C. Hale Professor of Sciences and Mathematics and co-director of the Solomon Asch Center for Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict at Bryn Mawr College, PA. His research interests include the psychology of group identification, the role of emotions in intergroup conflict and the relation between interpersonal emotions and intergroup emotions, the psychological foundations of ethnic conflict, genocide and terrorism and the process of radicalization that leads individuals from support for terrorism to acts of terrorism. He is founding editor of the journal Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward Terrorism and Genocide. In 2008 and 2009 he and his colleague Sophia Moskalenko published two papers in Terrorism and Political Violence on “Measuring Political Mobilization: The Distinction Between Activism and Radicalism” and the “Mechanisms of Political Radicalization: Pathways Toward Terrorism, in Terrorism and Political Violence”.|
|Hans G. Kippenberg||Dr. Hans Kippenberg studied at the universities of Marburg, Tübingen and Göttingen, received his PhD in Theology at the University of Göttingen and his Habilitation at the Free University of Berlin. Currently, he is Professor of Comparative Religious Studies (Wisdom-Professorship) at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at the Jacobs University Bremen. Previously, he was Professor for Theory and History of Religions at the University of Bremen and Professor for Comparative Religion and History of Religions at the University of Groningen. As a Fellow he also worked e.g. at the Max-Weber-Kolleg, University of Erfurt, the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton or at the Wissenschaftskolleg, Berlin. He was Visiting Professor at the Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan and at the universities of Chicago and Heidelberg. Prof. Kippenberg was chairman of the German Association for the Study of Religions and is the editor of several journals (e.g. the Journal of Religion in Europe and International Review for the History of Religions). One of his main research interests lies in the study of contemporary religious violence. His lectures and publications deal with the “Contemporary Dramas of Religious Violence and their Actors”, “Violence and Religion in the Age of Globalization”, “The Spiritual Manual of the Attackers of 9/11”, religious wars or fundamentalism.|
“Moral and Ecological Radicalization”
|Martin Balluch||Martin Balluch obtained diplomas in mathematics and astronomy from the University of Vienna and his PhD in physics from the University of Heidelberg. He then worked for 12 years as a lecturer and researcher at the Universities of Vienna, Heidelberg and Cambridge and later obtained a second PhD in Philosophy/Animal Ethics (2005). Already in 1997, he left academia to become a fulltime animal rights advocate. He co-founded the Austrian Vegan Society, has been president of the Austrian Association Against Animal Factories, served as an advisor to the Austrian government and advocated for animal protection legislation in Austria that by now is among the most advanced in the world. He is especially notable for his role in persuading the Austrian parliament in 2004 to add a clause about non-human animals to the constitution, to establish "animal solicitors" and to outlaw chicken battery farms. On May 21, 2008, Balluch was one of 10 leaders of Austrian animal advocacy groups jailed without charge under a law aimed at organized crime. The philosopher Peter Singer has called Balluch "one of the foremost spokesmen in the worldwide animal rights move-ment for pursuing the nonviolent, democratic road to reform." His latest book deals with civil disobedience and political resistance in democracies (2009).|
|John Sorenson||John Sorenson teaches Critical Animal Studies, globalization and antiracism at the Department of Sociology of Brock University in Canada. In 2009, he published an article on “Constructing terrorists: propaganda about animal rights” (in Critical Studies on Terrorism) which uses Discourse Theory in order to examine how the term “terrorism” is misapplied to non-violent actions of animal rights groups to undermine opposition to animal exploitation industries. Pro-fessor Sorenson has an HBA and MA from the University of Alberta and a PhD from York University (Social and Political Thought). He is currently working on a SSHRC-funded project on various ways of representing animals. Previous SSHRC grants have supported his research in the Horn of Africa (where he studied the experience of women in the Eritrean liberation struggle) and his re-search on diasporic communities from Africa in Canada. Professor Sorenson has been involved with a number of Third World solidarity groups. His books Im-agining Ethiopia and Ghosts and Shadows (co-author Atsuko Matsuoka) investigate politics of national identity. His most recent books are Ape and About Canada – Animal Rights.|
|Karl Cordell||Karl Cordell is Professor at the School of Management of Plymouth University where he teaches Comparative European Politics and Ethnopolitics in Europe. His research interests include Ethnic Politics, the Politics of Ethnicity in East-Central Europe, German Politics, Polish Politics and German-Polish Relations. Prof. Cordell edited several books (e.g. “Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe” (Routledge, 1998), “The Politics of Ethnicity in Central Europe” (Macmillan, 2000) or, together with his colleague Stefan Wolff, “The Ethnopolit-ical Encyclopaedia of Europe” (Palgrave/Macmillan, 2004), “Ethnic Conflict, Causes, Consequences and Responses” (Polity Press, 2009), and “The Handbook on Ethnicity and Conflict Resolution” (Routledge, 2010). His articles appeared in many peer-reviewed journals (e.g. Politics, The Political Quarterly, International Relations, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, or The Journal of Baltic Studies). Prof. Cordell has co-edited Ethnopolitics (since 2005), has been a member of the editorial board of Nationalities Papers (since 2007) and has been commissioned by Taylor & Francis as a general editor for a series on politics and ethnicity (in 2007). Last year, he became co-editor of the fully externally refereed academic journal Civil Wars. He founded and chaired the Ethnic Minority Politics Group of the Political Studies Association and has undertaken Visiting Lectureships in the UK, in Poland (at the Universities of Cracow, Opole and Wroclaw), and in the US (at the University of Notre Dame and Georgetown University).|
Workshop Session II: “The Danger of “Home-Grown” Terrorism in Australia”
|Waleed Aly||Waleed Aly is an Australian lawyer, Muslim and academic who studied engineering and law at the University of Melbourne. Currently, he is a PhD candidate in Philosophy at the School of Political & Social Inquiry in the Arts Faculty at Monash University in Australia where he also serves as a lecturer in Politics at the Global Terrorism Research Centre. His research interest lies in terrorism and political violence, the history of Islamic thought and Islam in diaspora con-ditions with a particular attention to Australia. Until 2007, he worked as a solicitor in Melbourne for Maddocks Lawyers. He has been a member of the executive committee of the Islamic Council of Victoria and has also served as the Council's head of public affairs. In 2008, he was selected to participate in the Australia 2020 Summit. Aly is a frequent commentator on Australian Muslim affairs and is regularly invited to address audiences of academics, businesses and community leaders as well as senior Australian politicians. His commentary appears regularly in newspapers and his first book “People like us: How Arrogance is Dividing Islam and the West” (2007) was shortlisted for the Best Newcomer in the Australian Book Industry Awards and the Queensland Premier's Literary Awards in 2008.|
“The Danger of “Home-Grown” Terrorism in Germany”
|Guido Steinberg||Dr. Guido Steinberg is a senior research fellow at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP) in Berlin and a lecturer in Middle East Politics at the Free University Berlin. An Islamicist and Middle East Historian by training, he received his PhD from the Freie University of Berlin with a study on Religion and State in Saudi Arabia in 2000. He has worked as special advisor on international terrorism in the German Federal Chancellery before he joined the SWP in 2005. Dr Steinberg is a frequent expert witness in German terrorism trials and has published widely on the Middle East, Saudi Arabian and Iraqi History and Politics, the Wahhabiya, and Islamism and Terrorism.|
“The Danger of “Home-Grown” Terrorism in Spain”
|Anthony Celso||Dr. Celso received his PhD in Comparative Public Policy from Ohio State University in 1989. Since then, he has taught at Mount Union College, University of Central Florida. For the last 16 years he was an Associate Professor of Government and History at the Valley Forge Military College (VFMC) in Wayne, Philadelphia. Although he was teaching seminars in International Relations, Comparative Politics, American Government, Globalization, Western Civilization and the Holocaust his current research interests concern the rise of radical Islamism in Europe, the Middle East and its implication for globalization and U.S. foreign policy. Between 2006 and 2009, he published several articles in the Mediterranean Quarterly on the Spanish post-3/11 anti-terror policy, the strategic challenges of Basque and Islamist terror during the Aznar and Zapatero eras, and “Al Qaeda in the Maghreb: The "Newest" Front in the War on Terror”. In 2007, he organized the VFMC “Terrorism Conference: Iraq and Beyond”.|
“The Danger of “Home-Grown” Terrorism in the Netherlands”
|Edwin Bakker||Dr. Edwin Bakker is the Head of the Clingendael Security and Conflict Programme of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’ in The Hague. He is a political geographer by training and received his doctorate at the University of Groningen (1997). In Groningen he published on intra state conflicts in Central and South-East Europe. His PhD thesis dealt with minority conflicts in Central Europe. As a lecturer at the Centre for International Conflict Analysis & Management of Nijmegen University (1997-2003) his research area shifted towards conflict management and the role of security organisations, in particular the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. At Clingendael, he has a research interest in non-conventional threats to interna-tional security, including jihadi terrorism in Europe. He manages and oversees the entire EU-funded "Transnational Terrorism, Security, and the Rule of Law (TTSRL)" - project at Clingendael. In addition, he is on the editorial board of the Dutch journals Peace & Security and Internationale Spectato and the international journal Quarterly on Security and Human Rights . His recent publications deal with terrorism-related tensions and conflicts in the Netherlands, trends and developments regarding Jihadi terrorists in Europe, the evolution of Al-Qaedaism and differences in terrorist threat perceptions in Europe.|
“The Danger of “Home-Grown” Terrorism in the USA”
|Daveed Gartenstein-Ross||Daveed Gartenstein-Ross is the vice president of research at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies (FDD) and the director of its Center for Terrorism Research. His primary research interest is the study of “home-grown” terrorism and radicalization. He is the author of “My Year Inside Radical Islam” (2007), which details his time working for the head U.S. office of the Al Haramain Islamic Foundation, an international Wahhabi charity (that the U.S. Treasury Department has named a specially designated global terrorist entity). In addition, he co-authored two reports in 2009 examining “home-grown” terrorists in the U.S. and U.K. and “Terrorism in the West 2008”. The former is an empirical examination of the radicalization process in 117 “home-grown” jihadi terrorists that provides a more sophisticated schema than previous studies for understanding the impact of religious ideology. His media appearances run from the Fox News Channel to al-Jazeera. He has appeared on virtually every outlet in between, including BBC, MSNBC, NPR, and PBS. In addition, he has travelled widely in the Middle East and Europe, including covering the Iraq war as an embedded journalist. Gartenstein-Ross is a Ph.D. candidate in world politics at the Catholic University of America and earned a J.D. from the New York University School of Law.|