This is the last working paper version before this study was accepted. Please cite as Baten, Joerg and Laura Maravall (2021). The Influence of Colonialism on Africa’s Welfare: An Anthropometric Study”, Journal of Comparative Economics (2021), online
This study presents new evidence on the anthropometric development of 47 countries. Did colonialism have an influence on the biological standard of living of Africans? We find that Africans lost stature upon colonization, even after controlling for a number of different variables and potential sample selectivity bias issues. We analyse various types of colonialism and find that both settler colonies and other colonies had an adverse effect on native African heights during the colonialization period.
This is the last working paper version before it was submitted to the European Journal of Political Economy that accepted this study for publication in 2021.
We present new evidence for elite violence using regicide, the killing of kings, and investigate the role of the state in European violence between the 6th and 19th centuries. First, regicide is critically assessed as a proxy for interpersonal elite violence. Second, we propose ‘territorial state capacity’ as a measure of states being able to keep or even expand their territories. We find a negative correlation between the changes in territorial state capacity and the changes in elite violence. This could be interpreted in two ways, either that growing territorial state capacity enabled human society to reduce violence, or that a higher regicide rate resulted in lower territorial state capacity. Another possibility would be a bidirectional mechanism that resulted in a co-evolution of the two variables.
Joerg Baten and Manuel Llorca-Jaña, "Inequality, Low-Intensity Immigration and Human Capital Formation in the Regions of Chile, 1820-1939", Economics and Human Biology (2021)
This article traces the relationship of inequality with numeracy development in the regions of Chile during the 19th and early 20th century. Inequality, measured by height, was associated with a lower speed of human capital formation. Not all talents received the necessary education to make full use of their talent for the regional economy. In addition, we study the correlates of low-intensity immigration in Chile. Regions with a relatively high share of North European migrants developed faster in terms of numeracy, even if the overall number of migrants was small. This effect might be related to externalities: the surrounding population adopted a similar behaviour as the small non-European immigrant group, and new schools were created.
Das Workingpaper wird in Population and Development Review erscheinen.
To what extent did sub-Saharan Africa’s 20th century schooling revolution benefit boys and girls equally? Using census data and a cohort approach, we examine gender gaps in years of education over the 20th century at world region, country and district levels. First, we find that compared to other developing regions, Africa had a small initial educational gender gap but subsequently made the least progress in closing the gap. Second, in most of the 21 African countries studied, gender gaps increased during most of the colonial era (ca. 1880-1960) and declined, albeit at different rates, after independence. On the world region and country level, the expansion of men’s education was initially associated with a growing gender gap, and subsequently a decline, a pattern we refer to as “educational gender Kuznets curve.” Third, using data from 6 decadal cohorts across 1,177 birth districts, we explore sub-national correlates of educational gender inequality. This confirms the inverse-U relationship between the gender gap and male education. We also find that districts with railroads, more urbanization and early 20th century Christian missions witnessed lower attainment gaps. We find no evidence that cash crop cultivation, agricultural division of labor or family systems were linked to gender gaps.
Read the whole paper in African Economic History Network
How can we trace early African development? The share of rulers’ known birth year has been identified as an indicator of elite numeracy in African regions since 1400, and the share of murdered rulers allows us to gain insights into interpersonal violence behaviour of African elites. From this emerges a dynamic picture of quantitative African history: the absence of elite violence and high elite numeracy developed jointly in sub-Saharan Africa. Some African regions, such as today’s Ethiopia and Angola, took the lead in early development but also experienced severe declines. Development in Africa was, on average, later than in Northwestern Europe.
Last working paper version before it was accepted by the European Review of Economic History
We study the role of employees’ identification to the employer for wage growth. We first show in a formal model that identification implies countervailing effects: Employees with higher identification are more valuable as they exert higher efforts, but have weaker bargaining positions, and less outside options as they search less. Analyzing a novel representative panel dataset, we find that stronger identification is associated with less job search and turnover. Workers that have higher identification exhibit significantly lower wage growth. In line with the model, this pattern tends to be reversed conditional on having obtained an external offer.
Published in: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization
The aim of executive compensation plans is to incentivize executives to maximize long-term firm value. Past research shows that executives’ pay is determined by short-term stock performance to a substantial degree. This paper tests for distributional differences in the time horizon of the performance–pay relation, controlling for executive-firm fixed effects in a quantile regression framework. I find the right tail of the conditional total compensation distribution has a more long-term-oriented performance–pay relation than the left tail. By contrast, the right tail of the conditional accumulated wealth distribution has more short-term-oriented performance–pay relation than the left tail. This shows that regulators ought to pay more attention to the timing of stock-related pay, since higher (conditional) wealth is more strongly associated with short term changes in firm value.
Das Coronajahr kratzt an der Managervergütung. Das wird die kommende Geschäftsberichtssaison zeigen. Je höher der variable Bestandteil, desto größer die Verluste.
Ein paar Passagen aus dem Artikel, die neugierig machen:
"Herbert Diess wird für das Jahr 2020 rund fünf Millionen Euro Gehalt erzielen. Dabei war der VW-Vorstandschef, wie das Handelsblatt am 14.7.2020 schrieb, im Jahr davor mit fast zehn Millionen Euro der neue „Dax-Topverdiener“, nachdem Bill McDermott mit mehr als 15 Millionen Euro seinen SAP-Chefposten aufgegeben hatte."
"Im Rahmen dieses Projekts kam zum einen heraus, dass Menschen, die im Wettbewerb hinten liegen, sich weniger anstrengen und sogar die Arbeit der Spitzenleute sabotieren, um ihnen den Bonus zu schmälern. Zum anderen halten Spitzenleute ihre Leistung zurück, um nicht Opfer von Sabotage zu werden."
"Doch trotzdem lässt sich durch gezielte Kommunikation Wertschätzung übermitteln. Ob Lob oder Bonus, die Reaktionen der Chefs müssen fair erscheinen. Dann halten Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter in der Krise auch vermehrt zusammen, um die Firma zu retten. Ergebnisse aus einem Laborexperiment zeigen, dass Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer gemeinsam arbeiten, um die Firma zu retten, und nicht nur an den eigenen Bonus denken. Auch in der Firmenrealität gibt es dafür Beispiele wie den Verzicht auf Urlaubstage und freiwillige Mehrarbeit."
- Ein großer Anteil der Betriebe setzt strukturierte Instrumente des Personalmanagements systematisch ein (z. B. Mitarbeitergespräche, Zielvereinbarungen, strukturierte Auswahlverfahren und Mitarbeiterbefragungen). Die Nutzung zentraler Instrumente geht dabei mit einer höheren Arbeitsqualität der Beschäftigten einher.
- Es zeigt sich aber auch: Veränderungen in der Arbeitswelt sind heterogen. Sie werden in unterschiedlichem Maße und in unterschiedlicher Geschwindigkeit in den Betrieben umgesetzt und angenommen.
- Über die Zeit beobachten wir bei der Gestaltung der variablen Vergütung beispielsweise Verschiebungen im Vergütungsmix hin zu mehr kollektiver und weniger individueller Ausrichtung der Leistungsmessung.
- Die Jobzufriedenheit ist bei den befragten Beschäftigten sehr hoch und stabil.
- Beschäftigte erleben neben vielen positiven Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung wie geringere körperliche Belastungen oder mehr Handlungsspielraum bei der Gestaltung von Arbeit auch eine zunehmende Vermischung von Arbeit und Freizeit.
- Siehe auch: https://www.inqa.de/DE/wissen/kompetenz/personalentwicklung/faktoren-arbeitsqualitaet.html
Using a representative consumer survey in the U.S., we elicit beliefs about the economic impact of climate change. Respondents perceive a high probability of costly, rare disasters due to climate change, but not much of an impact on GDP growth. Salience of rare disasters through media coverage increases the probability by up to 10 percentage points. Expectations about climate-change related disasters matter for monetary policy because they impact the natural rate of interest. We quantify this effect in a standard New Keynesian model and find that climate-change related disaster expectations cause a decline of the natural rate by about 70 basis points. If monetary policy fails to accommodate this effect, inflation and output decline by about 0.3 percent. Read the whole paper.
Historical events are fundamental determinants of economic performance. However, until recently, research in quantitative economic history has mainly focused on today’s high- and middle-income economies. This lack of research is particularly evident for the African continent. However, some aspects of Africa’s long-term development can be reconstructed using new proxy indicators. Although these might capture dimensions of social and economic change with a certain degree of measurement error, they are crucial to understand the economic history of the continent. In our paper we construct a panel dataset of numeracy that includes several African countries from the beginning of the 18th century until the end of the colonial period (1970) in 10-year intervals.
Neue Veröffentlichung zu Visuellen Repräsentationen im Wirtschaftsunterricht
In RISTAL ist ein Artikel von Malte Ring und Taiga Brahm erschienen:
Logical pictures, such as graphs and charts are an important part of instruction, not only in economic education. Learning with these logical pictures might be beneficial under appropriate conditions, however, domain-specific and visualization-specific challenges might impede learning. In this paper, we study the use of logical pictures in secondary economic education learning material and in economics teaching. In a mixed-method approach, we first analyze 450 logical pictures and propose a category system which distinguishes between the form of a logical picture as well as its domain-specificity. In a second step, we conducted teacher interviews with economic teachers. Results show that logical pictures are used frequently in textbooks, with graphs occurring more often than charts. The interview findings support the relevance of graphs and charts for instruction and provide information about the necessary student abilities and their challenges when working with different logical pictures in economic education from the teacher’s perspective.
The paper studies the current COVID-19 pandemic by applying an adapted epidemiologic model, where each individual is in one of the five states “susceptible”, “infected”, “removed”, “immune healthy” or “dead”. We extend the basic model with time-invariant transition rates between these states by allowing for time-dependent infection rates as a consequence of lockdowns and social distancing policies as well as for time-dependent mortality rates as a result of changing infection patterns. Our model proves to be appropriate to calibrate and simulate the dynamics of COVID-19 pandemic in Germany between January and October 2020. We provide deeper insights about some key indicators such as the reproduction number, the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions, and the development of the infection and mortality rates.
Der Artikel ist erschienen in: Accounting in Europe, 17. Jg., S. 204 - 237.
Die Autorin Viktoria Müller ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Lehrstuhl für Internationale Rechnungslegung und Wirtschaftsprüfung, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft der Universität Tübingen.
In this paper, Müller analyzes the consequences of cash flow hedge accounting on portfolio earnings of firms focusing on main changes between IFRS 9 and IAS 39. For this purpose, she develops a simulation study which illustrates the quantitative effects on the accounting entries according to the currently applicable hedge accounting methods. It is especially addressed what accounting differences arise and how these distinctions may affect a firm’s earnings. Furthermore, I examine to which firms early switching becomes especially desirable or burdensome. This information is particularly useful to managers and investors. The paper shows that portfolio earnings are affected differently. In the model, IAS 39 may lead to higher or lower earnings for increasing deviations between foreign and domestic interest rates. Additionally, sensitivity to volatility changes varies among the methods. Moreover, a partly ineffective hedging relationship does not necessarily decrease earnings compared to its fully effective counterpart.
In den WiWi NEWS Sommer 2020 berichteten wir über das Forschungsprojekt am Lehrstuhl "Seltene Disaster - Wo sie zu finden sind" und in der Ringvorlesung zur Corona-Pandemie an der WiSo-Fakultät wurde eine Vorlesung zu diesem Projekt am Lehrstuhl Statistik, Ökonometrie und Empirische Wirtschaftsforschung auf You Tube übertragen.
Das Paper “Empirical Asset Pricing with Rare Disaster Risk: A Simulation-Based Approach” von Jantje Sönksen und Joachim Grammig wurde im Journal of Econometrics zur Publikation angenommen. Das Paper ist Open-Access und damit schon jetzt online frei verfügbar. Das Journal of Econometrics ist die führende internationale Fachzeitschrift der Ökonometrie.
We propose a simulation-based strategy to estimate and empirically assess a class of asset pricing models that account for rare but severe consumption contractions that can extend over multiple periods. Our approach expands the scope of prevalent calibration studies and tackles the inherent sample selection problem associated with measuring the effect of rare disaster risk on asset prices. An analysis based on postwar U.S. and historical multi-country panel data yields estimates of investor preference parameters that are economically plausible and robust with respect to alternative specifications. The estimated model withstands tests of validity; the model-implied key financial indicators and timing premium all have reasonable magnitudes. These findings suggest that the rare disaster hypothesis can help restore the nexus between the real economy and financial markets when allowing for multi-period disaster events. Our methodological contribution is a new econometric framework for empirical asset pricing with rare disaster risk.
The paper "Free Shipping and Product Returns" has been published in the Journal of Marketing Research. The article is joint work by Edlira Shehu, Dominik Papies, and Scott Neslin. The Journal of Marketing Research is one of the field's top journals, rated A+ in the German Jourqual ranking and part of the Financial Times journal list.
Free shipping promotions have become popular among online retailers. However, little is known about their influence on consumers’ purchases, return behavior, and, ultimately, firm profit. The authors propose that free shipping promotions encourage customers to make riskier purchases, leading to more product returns. They estimate the impact of these promotions on purchase incidence, high-risk and low-risk spend, and return share. The results show that free shipping promotions increase expenditure for high-risk products, expanding their share of the consumer’s market basket and thus increasing the overall return rate. This is validated in a field experiment. A field test and an online lab experiment analyze the mechanism linking free shipping and returns. The results suggest that the free shipping effect occurs through consumers’ perceptions that free shipping serves as a risk premium compensating them for potential returns and through positive affect generated by the promotion. A simulation shows that for the focal firm, free shipping promotions increase net sales volume, but higher product returns and lost shipping revenue render these promotions unprofitable.
A pdf is available here.
Using human skeletal remains, this volume traces health, workload and violence in the European population over the past 2,000 years. Health was surprisingly good for people who lived during the early Medieval Period. The Plague of Justinian of the sixth century was ultimately beneficial for health because the smaller population had relatively more resources that contributed to better living conditions. Increasing population density and inequality in the following centuries imposed an unhealthy diet - poor in protein - on the European population. With the onset of the Little Ice Age in the late Middle Ages, a further health decline ensued, which was not reversed until the nineteenth century. While some aspects of health declined, other attributes improved. During the early modern period, interpersonal violence (outside of warfare) declined possibly because stronger states and institutions were able to enforce compromise and cooperation. European health over the past two millennia was hence multifaceted in nature.
Valeria Merlo (Professor of International Economics at the University of Tübingen), Georg Wamser (Professor of Economics at the University of Tübingen) and Sven Blank (Research economist at the Deutsche Bundesbank’s Research Centre), Peter H. Egger (Professor of Applied Economics at ETH Zurich) are the authors of the recent publication of the Deutsche Bundesbank about the costs of the Brexit. Read the Deutsche Bundesbank Research Brief and the respective RSIT working paper: A Structural Quantitative Analysis of Services Trade De-liberalization
When it comes to trade in goods and services, the European Union (EU) is the United Kingdom’s most important partner. By the same token, the United Kingdom is also an important trading partner for the EU. The United Kingdom’s departure from the EU means that new market access arrangements need to be agreed between the two parties. These changes are likely to come with a hefty price tag for both sides. If we want to quantify these costs, though, it is not enough to simply look at goods transactions and traditional trade barriers such as customs tariffs to provide a quantitative picture of the possible repercussions of Brexit. Both the United Kingdom and individual EU Member States rank among the world’s most important exporters of services, which is why, in a new study, we investigate – among other issues – the potential costs of a de-liberalisation of trade in services.