Institut für Evolution und Ökologie


Animal Evolutionary Ecology group


  • Anger, F., Förschler, M. I. & Anthes, N. (2023). Variation in reproductive success in a fragmented Meadow Pipit population: a role for vegetation succession? Journal of Ornithology. 10.1007/s10336-023-02121-4

  • John, L., Santon, M. & Michiels, N. K. (2023). Scorpionfish rapidly change color in response to their background. Frontiers in Zoology

  • Schöffski, N., Anthes, N., Harry, I. & Anger, F. (2023). Breeding success of Meadow Pipit (Anthus pratensis) in different habitats in the southern Black Forest [in german]. Ornithol. Jh. Bad.-Württ. 39: 23-35.

  • Santon, M., Korner-Nievergelt, F., Michiels, N. K. & Anthes, N. (2023). A versatile workflow for linear modelling in R. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 11: 10.3389/fevo.2023.1065273.


  • Anthes, N., Hammerschmidt, A., Koch, A. E., Hielscher, S. & Staggenborg, J. (2022). Raumnutzung und Neststandorte der Grauammer im Raum Creglingen. Faun. u. flor. Mitt. Taubergrund, 33, 41-67.

  • Bamann, T., Anthes, N. & Stork, N. (2022). Der Libellen-Schmetterlingshaft in Südwestdeutschland. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung, 54, 14-23.

  • Hermann, S., P. Detzel, T. Bamann & N. Anthes (2022): Association between mowing regimes and abundance of the Bull Bush Cricket (Polysarcus denticauda). Articulata 37: 83-102.

  • Krais, S., Anthes, N., Huppertsberg, S., Knepper, T. P., Peschke, K., Ruhl, A. S., Schmieg, H., Schwarz, T., Köhler, H.-R. & Triebskorn, R. (2022). Polystyrene Microplastics Modulate the Toxicity of the Hydrophilic Insecticide Thiacloprid for Chironomid Larvae and Also Influence Their Burrowing Behavior. Microplastics, 1, 505-519.

  • Staggenborg, J. & Anthes, N. (2022). Long‐term fallows rate best among agri‐environment scheme effects on farmland birds — A meta‐analysis. Conservation Letters, e12904.


  • Hölzinger, J. & H.-G. Bauer, unter Mitarbeit von N. Anthes et al. (2021): Die Vögel Baden-Württembergs, Band 2.1.2 -  Nicht-Singvögel 1.3, Greifvögel. Ulmer, Stuttgart.
  • Rieger, M., Mailänder, S., Stier, L., Santon, M. & Staggenborg, J. (2021): Optimizing flower fields as an effective farmland eco-scheme also during non-breeding. J. Applied Ecol.


  • Santon, M., Deiss, F., Bitton, P.-P., & Michiels, N. K. (2020). A context analysis of bobbing and fin-flicking in a smalll marine benthic fish. Ecology and Evolution
  • Neiße, N., Santon, M., Bitton, P.-P., & Michiels, N. K. (2020). Small benthic fish strike at prey over distances that fall within theoretical predictions for active sensing using light. Journal of Fish Biology doi/10.1111/jfb.14502
  • Anger, F., Dorka, U., Anthes, N., Dreiser, C. & Förschler, M. I. (2020). Population decline and habitat use of the Alpine Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus alpestris in the Northern Black Forest (Baden-Württemberg) [in German]. Ornithol. Beob. 117, 38-51.
  • Beier, J., N. Anthes, J. Wahl, K. Harvati (2020). Prevalence of cranial trauma in Eurasian Upper Paleolithic humans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, in press.
  • Santon, M., Bitton, P.-P., Dehm, J., Fritsch, R., Harant, U. K., Anthes, N. & Michiels, N. K. (2020). Redirection of ambient light improves predator detection in a diurnal fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 287, 20192292 [Featured in J. Exp. Biol.)


  • Anthes, N., Götz, H. & Handschuh, M. (2019): Expanding north? Putting the first German breeding record of Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala into context. Vogelwelt 139: 31-38 .
  • Bitton, P.-P., Yun Christmann, S.A., Santon M., Harant, U.K. & Michiels, N. K. (2019): Visual modelling supports the potential for prey detection by means of diurnal active photolocation in a small cryptobenthic fish.  Scientific Reports doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-44529-0
  • Dellwisch, B., Schmid, F. & Anthes, N. (2019): Habitat use of farmland birds during the non-breeding season in the context of the EU agricultural policy [in German]. Vogelwarte 57: 31-45.
  • Pärssinen, V., Kalb, N., Vallon, M., Anthes, N. & Heubel, K. 2019. Male and female preferences for nest characteristics under paternal care. Ecology and Evolution.
  • Santon, M., Münch, T.A. & Michiels, N. K. (2019): The contrast sensitivity function of a small cryptobenthic marine fish. Jounal of Vision doi:10.1167/19.2.1


  • Anthes, N. & J. Staggenborg (2018): Die Grauammer als Leitart - Schutzkonzept für Vögel der Agrarlandschaft. Falke 9/2018: 22-24.
  • Beier, J., N. Anthes, J. Wahl & K. Harvati (2018): Similar cranial trauma prevalence among Neanderthals and Upper Palaeolithic modern humans. Nature (in press).
  • Furtwängler, A., ... N. Anthes, ... J.Krause et al. (2018): Ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA affects contamination estimates in ancient DNA analysis. Scientific Reports 8: 14075.
  • Harant, U.K., M. Santon, P.-P. Bitton, F. Wehrberger, T. Griessler, M.G. Meadows, C.M. Champ & N.K. Michiels (2018): Do the fluorescent red eyes of the marine fish Tripterygion delaisi stand out? In situ and in vivo measurements at two depths. Ecology and Evolution 8: 4685-4694.
  • Hely, M., N. Anthes & T. Bamann (2018): Early mowing supports the Tufted Skipper (Carcharodus flocciferus) in southwest Germany [in German]. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung 12/2018 (in press)
  • Hölzinger, J. & H.-G. Bauer, unter Mitarbeit von N. Anthes et al. (2018): Die Vögel Baden Württembergs, Band 2.1.1 -  Nicht-Singvögel 1.2, Entenvögel. Ulmer, Stuttgart.

  • Mück, I. & Heubel, K. U. (2018): Ecological variation along the salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea Area and its consequences for reproduction in the common goby. Current Zoology
  • Michiels, N. K., Seeburger V. C., Kalb, N., Meadows M. G., Anthes, N., Mailli, A. A. & Jack, C.B. (2018): Controlled iris radiance in a diunal fish looking at prey. Royal Society Open Science
  • Santon, M., Bitton, P.-P., Harant, U. K. & Michiels, N. K. (2018): Daytime eyeshine contributes to pupil camouflage in a cryptobenthic marine fish. Scientific Reports


  • Anthes, N., Boschert M. & Daniels-Trautner J. (2017): Breeding range and population trend of the Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra in Baden-Württemberg [in German]. Ornithol. Jh. Bad.-Württ. 33:27-44.
  • Bitton, P.-P., Harant, U.K., Fritsch, R., Champ, C.M., Temple, S.E., Michiels, N.K. (2017): Red fluorescence of the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi is increasingly visible against background light with increasing depth Royal Society Open Acces DOI: 10.1098/rsos.161009
  • de Jong, K., Amorim,M.C.P, Fonseca, P.J., Fox, C.J. & Heubel, K.U. (2017): Noise can affect acoustic communication and subsequent spawning success in fish. Environmental Pollution.
  • Fritsch, R., Collin, S. P., & Michiels, N. K. (2017): Anatomical Analysis of the Retinal Specializations to a Crypto-Benthic, Micro-Predatory Lifestyle in the Mediterranean Triplefin Blenny Tripterygion delaisi. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
  • Harant, U., Michiels N.K. (2017): Fish with red fluorescent eyes forage more efficiently under dim, blue-green light conditions BMC Ecology
  • Fritsch, R., Ullmann, J.F.P., Bitton, P.P., Collin, S.P., Michiels, N.K. (2017): Optic-nerve-transmitted eyeshine, a new type of light emission from fish eyes. Frontiers in Zoology 2017
  • Seidt, M., S. Geißler-Strobel, M. Kramer, R. Kratzer, F. Straub & N. Anthes (2017): Population size and management of the Grey Partridge Perdix perdix in the administrative district of Tübingen [in German]. Ornithol. Jh. Bad.-Württ. 33:3-12.
  • Vallon, M. & K.U. Heubel (2017): Egg density and salinity influence filial cannibalism in common gobies. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 71: 159.


  • Anthes, N., Häderer, I.K., Michiels, N.K. & Janicke, T. (2016): Measuring and interpreting sexual selection metrics – evaluation and guidelines. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, in press.
  • Anthes, N., Theobald, J., Gerlach, T., Meadows, M.G. & Michiels, N.K. (2016): Diversity and Ecological Correlates of Red Fluorescence in Marine Fishes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 4: 126.
  • Blom, E.-L., Mück, I., Heubel, K. & Svensson, O. (2016): Acoustic and visual courtship traits in two sympatric marine Gobiidae species – Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus. Environmental Biology of Fishes, in press.
  • De Jong, K., Schulte G., Heubel K.U. (2016): The noise egg: a cheap and simple device to produce low-frequency underwater noise for laboratory and field experiments. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2016 doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12653
  • Gerlach, T., Theobald, J., Hart, N. S., Collin, S. P. & Michiels, N. K. (2016): Fluorescence characterisation and visual ecology of pseudocheilinid wrasses. Frontiers in Zoology 13, 1-8.
  • Harant U.K., Michiels N.K., Anthes N., Meadows M.G. (2016): The consistent difference in red fluorescence in fishes across a 15 m depth gradient is triggered by ambient brightness, not by ambient spectrum. BMC Research Notes 9:1-10.
  • Häderer I.K., Michiels N.K. (2016): Successful Operant Conditioning of Marine Fish in Their Natural Environment. Copeia 104:380-386.
  • Janicke T., Häderer I.K., Lajeunesse M.J., Anthes N. (2016): Darwinian sex roles confirmed across the animal kingdom. Science Advances 2: e1500983.
  • Kalb, N., Lindström, K., Sprenger, D., Anthes, N. & Heubel, K. U. (2016): Male personality and female spawning consistency in a goby with exclusive male care. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 70: 683-693.
  • Vallon, M., Anthes, N., and Heubel, K.U. (2016): Water mold infection but not paternity induces selective filial cannibalism in a goby. Ecology and Evolution 6: 7221–7229 .
  • Vallon M, Grom C, Kalb N, Sprenger D, Anthes N, Lindström K, Heubel KU (2016): You eat what you are: personality-dependent filial cannibalism in a fish with paternal care. Ecology and Evolution 6: 1340–1352.
  • Vallon M, Heubel KU (2016): Old but gold: males preferentially cannibalize young eggs. Behav Ecol Sociobiol. 70: 569-573.


  • Böhler, E., M. Seidt, N. Anthes, F. Straub & G. Hermann (2015): Habitatpräferenzen der Gelbbauchunke (Bombina variegata) im Waldgebiet Rammert und Konsequenzen für den Schutz der Art. Z. Feldherpetol. 22: 1-20.
  • Gühmann M, Jia H, Randel N, Verasztó C, Bezares-Calderón Luis A, Michiels Nico K, Yokoyama S, Jékely G (2015): Spectral Tuning of Phototaxis by a Go-Opsin in the Rhabdomeric Eyes of Platynereis. Curr Biol 25:2265-2271.
  • Kalb, N., Schneider, R., Sprenger, D. & Michiels, N. (2015): The red-fluorescing marine fish Tripterygion delaisi can perceive its own red fluorescent color. Ethology 121: 566-576.
  • Prinzinger, R., H.-G. Bauer, W. Schmid, N. Anthes & U. Mahler (2015): Nachruf & Bibliografie Dr. Jochen Hölzinger. Ornithologische Jahreshefte für Baden-Württemberg 31: 1-30.


  • Anthes, N., J. Werminghausen & R. Lange (2014): Large donors transfer more sperm, but depletion is faster in a promiscuous hermaphrodite. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol 68:477-483.
  • Braun, C., N.K. Michiels, U.E. Siebeck & D. Sprenger (2014): Signalling function of long wavelength colours during agonistic male-male interactions in the wrasse Coris julis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 504: 277-286.
  • Fritzsche, K., Timmermeyer, N., Wolter, M. & Michiels, N. K. (2014): Female, but not male, nematodes evolve under experimental sexual coevolution. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 281: 20140942
  • Gerlach, T., D. Sprenger & N.K. Michiels (2014): Fairy wrasses perceive and respond to their deep red fluorescent coloration. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 281: 20140787.
  • Lange, R., J. Werminghausen & N. Anthes (2014): Cephalo-traumatic secretion transfer in a hermaphrodite sea slug. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Lond. B. 281: . doi10.1098/rspb.2013.2424.
  • Meadows, M. G., Anthes, N., Dangelmayer, S., Alwany, M. A., Gerlach, T., Schulte, G., Sprenger, D., Theobald, J. & Michiels, N. K. (2014): Red fluorescence increases with depth in reef fishes, supporting a visual function, not UV protection. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 281: 20141211.
  • Reinhardt, K., N. Anthes & R. Lange (2014): Copulatory Wounding and Traumatic Insemination. In: W.R.Rice & S.Gavrilets (eds.) The Genetics and Biology of Sexual Conflict. A subject collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. CSH Press, New York
  • Wucherer, M.F. & N.K. Michiels (2014): Regulation of red fluorescent light emission in a cryptic marine fish. Frontiers in Zoology 11: 1.


  • Lange, R. , J. Werminghausen, N. Anthes (2013): Does traumatic secretion transfer manipulate mating roles or reproductive output in a hermaphroditic sea slug? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 67: 1239-1247.
  • Lange, R., K. Reinhardt, N.K. Michiels & N. Anthes (2013: Functions, diversity, and evolution of traumatic mating. Biological Reviews 88: 585-601.
  • Lehtonen J, Schmidt DJ, Heubel K, Kokko, H. (2013): Evolutionary and ecological implications of sexual parasitism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28:297-306.
  • Otti, O., McTighe, A. & Reinhardt, K. (2013): In vitro antimicrobial sperm protection by an ejaculate-like substance. Funct. Ecol 27: 219-226
  • Reinhardt, K. (2013): Clinical evidence of symptoms of bed bug bites. Br. Med. J. rr/631795
  • Reinhardt, K., Ribou, A.-C. (2013): Females become infertile as the stored sperm's oxygen radicals increase. Scientific Reports 3: 2888
  • Reinhardt, K., Dowling, D.K., Morrow, E.H. (2013): Mitochondrial Replacement, Evolution, and the Clinic. Science 341: 1345-1346
  • Sánchez Navarro, B., Jokela, J., Michiels, N. K., D'Souza, T.G. (2013): Population genetic structure of parthenogenetic flatworm populations with occasional sex Freshwater Biology. DOI: 10.1111/fwb.12070
  • Seidel C., Reinhardt, K. (2013): Bugging forecast: Unknown, disliked, occasionally intimate. Bed bugs in Germany meet unprepared people. PLoS ONE 8:e51083
  • Vowinkel, K. & N. Anthes (2012): Revierdichten und Bestand des Gartenrotschwanzes in Baden-Württemberg 2011. Ornithol. Jh. Bad.-Württ. 28: 73-92.
  • Werminghausen J., R. Lange & N. Anthes (2013): Seeking a Sex-Specific Coolidge Effect in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite. Ethology 119: 541-551.

2012 and earlier


  • Gassner, P., D. Sprenger & N. Anthes (2012): Red Sea butterflyfish responds to changing coral cover. Biodiv. Science 6 (Apr 2012).
  • Kokko, H. and Heubel, K.U. (in press 2012): On depending on fish for a living, and other difficulties of living sustainably, in: K. Sterelny, R. Joyce, B. Calcott, and B. Fraser (Eds.), Cooperation and its Evolution, MIT press.
  • Lange, R., J. Beninde, V. Reichel, J. Werminghausen, T. Gerlach & N. Anthes (2012): Copulation duration does not predict sperm transfer in a marine hermaphrodite. Animal Behaviour.
  • Lange R et al. (2012): Female Fitness Optimum at Intermediate Mating Rates under Traumatic Mating. PLoS One 7(8): e43234.
  • Reinhardt, K, Otti, O. (2012): Comparing sperm swimming speed. Evol Ecol Res., in press
  • Ribou, A.-C., Reinhardt, K. (2012): Reduced metabolic rate and oxygen radicals production in stored insect sperm. Proc R Soc Lond B 279: 2196-2203.
  • Schulte, R.D., B. Hasert, C. Makus, N.K. Michiels, H. Schulenburg (2012): Increased responsiveness in feeding behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans after experimental coevolution with its microparasite Bacillus thuringiensis. Biol. Lett. 8:234-236
  • Sprenger, D., Dingemanse, N.J., Dochtermann, N.A., Theobald, J. Walker, S.P.W. (2012): Aggressive females become aggressive males in a sex-changing reef fish. Ecology Letters 15(9):986-992.
  • Wucherer MF, Michiels NK (2012) A fluorescent chromatophore changes the level of fluorescence in a reef fish. PLoS ONE 7(6): e37913


  • Boehnisch, C, Wong, D, Habig, M, Isermann, K, Michiels, NK, Roeder, T, May, RC, Schulenburg, H (2011): Protist-Type Lysozymes of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Contribute to Resistance against Pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis. PLOS ONE 6(9): e24619.
  • Dobler, R. & Kölliker, M., (2011): Influence of weight asymmetry and kinship on siblicidal and cannibalistic behaviour in earwigs, Animal Behaviour
  • Hammerschmidt K, Pemberton AJ, Michiels NK, Bishop, JDD (2011): Differential maternal allocation following mixed insemination contributes to variation in oocyte size in a sea squirt. Marine Ecology Progress Series 422:123-128.
  • Kokko H., Heubel K.U. (2011): Prudent males, group adaptation, and the tragedy of the commons. Oikos 120:641-656.
  • Reinhardt, K., Naylor, R. & Siva-Jothy, M. T. (2011) Male mating rate is constrained by seminal fluid availability in bed bugs, Cimex lectularius. PLoS ONE 6:7e22082.
  • Schulte RD, Carsten Makus, Barbara Hasert, Nico K. Michiels, and Hinrich Schulenburg (2011): Host-parasite local adaptation after experimental coevolution of Caenorhabditis elegans and its microparasite Bacillus thuringiensis. Proc R Soc B 278: 2832-2839.
  • Sprenger, D., R. Lange & N. Anthes (2011). Population density and group size effects on reproductive behavior in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. BMC Evol. Biol. 11: 107
  • Wong Janine WY, Nico K Michiels (2011): Control of social monogamy through aggression in a hermaphroditic shrimp. Frontiers in Zoology 2011, 8:30.


  • Anthes, N., P. David, D. Sprenger et al. (2010): Bateman Gradients in Hermaphrodites: An Extended Approach to Quantify Sexual Selection. The American Naturalist 176:249-263 [full text]
  • Anthes, N. (2010): Mate choice and reproductive conflict in simultaneous hermaphrodites. In: P.M. Kappeler (ed) Animal Behaviour: Evolution and Mechanisms. Springer Verlag (in press).
  • D'Souza, T. G., and N. K. Michiels. (2010): The Costs and Benefits of Occasional Sex: Theoretical Predictions and a Case Study. J Hered 101:S34-41.
  • Schleicherova D, Lorenzi MC, Sella G, Michiels NK (2010): Gender expression and group size: a test in a hermaphroditic and a gonochoric congeneric species of Ophryotrocha (Polychaeta) J Exp Biol 213, 1586-1590 [full text], DOI:10.1242/jeb.041814
  • Schulte RD, Makus C, Hasert B, Michiels NK, Schulenburg H (2010): Multiple reciprocal adaptations and rapid genetic change upon experimental coevolution of an animal host and its microbial parasite. PNAS (online before print) [full text], DOI:10.1073/pnas.1003113107
  • Siebeck, U. E., A. N. Parker, D. Sprenger, L. M. Mäthger, and G. Wallis. 2010. A Species of Reef Fish that Uses Ultraviolet Patterns for Covert Face Recognition. Current Biology 20:407-410. [full text], DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2009.12.047
  • Sprenger, D., R. Lange, N.K. Michiels & N. Anthes (2010): Sources of phenotypic variance in egg and larval traits in a marine invertebrate. Evolutionary Ecology 24: 185-194 [full text], DOI:10.1007/s10682-009-9300-x
  • Timmermeyer N., Gerlach T, Guempel C. et al. (2010): The function of copulatory plugs in Caenorhabditis remanei: hints for female benefits. Frontiers in Zoology 7: 28.
  • Velavan TP, Schulenburg H, Michiels NK (2010): Detection of multiple infections by Monocystis strains in a single earthworm host using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence variation. Parasitology 137: 45-51.


  • Baele G., N. Bredeche, E. Haasdijk, S. Maere, N.K. Michiels, Y. Van de Peer, T. Schmickl, C. Schwarzer, R. Thenius (2009):
  • Open-ended On-board Evolutionary Robotics for Robot Swarms. Proc. 11th Congress Evolutionary Computation, Trondheim, Norway: 1123-1130. ISBN:978-1-4244-2958-5.
  • Bedhomme, S., G. Bernasconi, J.M. Koene, A. Lankinen, H.S. Arathi, N.K. Michiels, N. Anthes (2009): How does breeding system variation modulate sexual antagonism? Biol. Lett. 5: 717-720 [full text]
  • D'Souza TG & N.K. Michiels (2009): Sex in parthenogenetic planarians: Phylogenetic relic or evolutionary resurrection? In: I. Schön, K. Martens & P. van Dijk (eds.) Lost Sex. Springer Verlag (in press)
  • Häderer, I.K., J. Werminghausen, N.K. Michiels, N. Timmermeyer, N. Anthes (2009): No effect of mate novelty on sexual motivation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Frontiers in Zoology 6: 23. [free full text]
  • Michiels, N.K., P.H. Crowley & N.Anthes (2009): Accessory male investment can undermine the evolutionary stability of simultaneous hermaphroditism. Biol. Lett. 5: 709-712. [free full text]
  • Sánchez Navarro, Michiels, Köhler and D’Souza (2009): Differential expression of heat shock protein 70 in relation to stress type in the flatworm Schmidtea polychroa. Hydrobiologia 636: 393-400. [full text]
  • Sprenger, D., R. Lange, N.K. Michiels & N. Anthes (2009): The role of body size in early mating behavior in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, Chelidonura sandrana. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol 63: 953-958. [full text], DOI: 10.1007/s00265-009-0738-1
  • Velavan TP, Sahm S, Schulenburg H, Michiels NK (2009): High genetic diversity and heterogeneous parasite load in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on a German meadow. Soil Biol Biochem 41: 1591-1595 [full text], DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.03.026


  • Anthes, N., H. Schulenburg & N.K. Michiels (2008): Evolutionary links between reproductive morphology and mating behaviour in opisthobranch gastropods. Evolution 62: 900-916. [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00326.x
  • Anthes, N., T. Fartmann & G. Hermann (2008): The Duke of Burgundy butterfly and its dukedom: larval niche variation in Hamearis lucina across Central Europe. J. Insect Cons. 12: 3-14. [full text], DOI: 10.1007/s10841-007-9084-7
  • D'Souza TG, Bellenhaus V, Wesselmann R, Michiels NK (2008): Sperm length and sperm fertility in sperm-dependent parthenogens. Biol. J. Linnean Soc., Volume: 91, Number: 1, Pages: 81-87 [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00913.x
  • D'Souza & Michiels (2008): Correlation between genotypic diversity and fitness across parthenogenetic flatworm populations. J. Evol. Biol., 21: 276-286. [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2007.01446.x
  • Gagern, A., T. Schürg, N. Michiels, G. Schulte, D. Sprenger, N. Anthes (2008): Behavioural response to interference competition in a sessile suspension feeder. Marine Ecology Progress Series 353: 131-135. [full text], DOI: 10.3354/meps07204
  • Michiels N.K., Nils Anthes, Nathan S. Hart, Juergen Herler, Alfred J. Meixner, Frank Schleifenbaum, Gregor Schulte, Ulrike E. Siebeck, Dennis Sprenger and Matthias F. Wucherer (2008): Red fluorescence in reef fish: a novel signalling mechanism? BMC Ecology Volume 8:16 [free full text], DOI: 10.1186/1472-6785-8-16
  • Novo M. , Velavan T.P., Almodóvar A., Schulenburg H., Díaz-Cosín D.J., & Michiels N.K. (2008): Microsatellite markers for the drought-resistant earthworm Hormogaster elisae Molecular Ecology Resources [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2008.02105.x
  • Pujol N, Zugasti O, Wong D, Couillault C, Kurz CL, Schulenburg H, Ewbank JJ (2008): Anti-fungal innate immunity in C. elegans is enhanced by evolutionary diversification of antimicrobial peptides. PLoS Pathogens, 4(7) [full text] ,DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000105
  • Putz, A., N.K. Michiels & N. Anthes (2008): Mating behaviour of the sperm trading sea slug Chelidonura hirundinina: repeated sex role alternation balances reciprocity. Ethology, 114: 85-94 [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2007.01440.x
  • Schulenburg H, Boehnisch C (2008): Diversification and adaptive sequence evolution of Caenorhabditis lysozymes (Nematoda: Rhabditidae). BMC-Evol. Biol. 8:114 [full text], DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-114
  • Schulenburg H, Hoeppner MP, Weiner III J, Bornberg-Bauer E (2008): Specificity of the innate immune system and diversity of C-type lectin domain (CTLD) proteins in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Immunobiol. 213:237-250. [full text], DOI: 10.1016/j.imbio.2007.12.004
  • Sprenger, D., N. Anthes & N.K. Michiels (2008): Multiple mating affects offspring size in the opisthobranch Chelidonura sandrana. Marine Biology 153: 891-897 [full text], DOI: 10.1007/s00227-007-0861-3
  • Sprenger, D., J. Faber, N.K. Michiels & N. Anthes (2008): Natural female mating rate maximizes hatchling size in a marine invertebrate. J. Animal Ecol. Volume 77 Issue 4, Pages 696 - 701 [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01376.x


  • Anthes, N. & N.K.Michiels (2007): Precopulatory stabbing, hypodermic injections and unilateral copulations in a hermaphroditic sea slug. Biology Letters 3: 121-124. [full text ], DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0596
  • Anthes, N. & N.K. Michiels (2007): Reproductive morphology, mating behaviour, and spawning ecology in cephalaspid sea slugs (Aglajidae and Gastropteridae). Invertebrate Biology 126 (4): 335-365, [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7410.2007.00096.x
  • Brauer VS, Schärer L and Michiels NK (2007): Phenotypically flexible sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Evolution 61: 216-222. [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00018.x
  • Bruvo R, Schulenburg H, Storhas M, Michiels NK (2007): Synergism between mutational meltdown and Red Queen in parthenogenetic biotypes of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Oikos 116: 313-323 [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2007.15388.x
  • Field SG, Lange M, Schulenburg H, Velavan TP, Michiels NK (2007): Genetic diversity and parasite defense in a fragmented urban metapopulation of Lumbricus terrestris. Anim. Conserv. 10: 162-175, [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00084.x
  • Field SG, Michiels NK (2007): Acephaline gregarine parasites (Monocystis) are not transmitted sexually among their lumbricid earthworm hosts. J. Parasitol. 92: 292–297. [full text], DOI: 10.1645/GE-643R.1
  • Haag E, Chamberlin H, Coghlan A, Fitch DHA, Peters AD, Schulenburg H. (2007): Evolutionary biology of Caenorhabditis nematodes: If they all look alike, you aren't looking hard enough! Trends Genet. 23:101-104, [full text], DOI: 10.1016/j.tig.2007.01.002
  • Hasshoff M, Tonn D, Boehnisch C, Hasert B, Schulenburg H. (2007): The role of Caenorhabditis elegans insulin-like signalling in the behavioural avoidance of pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis. FASEB J. 21:1801-1812, [full text], DOI: 10.1096/fj.06-6551com.
  • Schmitt V, Anthes, N, Michiels NK (2007): Mating behaviour in the sea slug Elysia timida (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa): hypodermic injection, sperm transfer and balanced reciprocity. Frontiers in Zoology 4:17, [free full text], DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-4-17
  • Schulenburg H, Boehnisch C, Michiels NK (2007): How do invertebrates generate a highly specific innate immune response? Mol. Immunol. 44:3338-3344, [full text], DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2007.02.019
  • Schulenburg H, Ewbank JJ (2007): The genetics of pathogen avoidance in C. elegans. Mol. Microbiol. 66:563-570. [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05946.x
  • Sicard M, Hering S, Schulte R, Schulenburg H (2007) The effect of pathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens on survival, development, population growth, and behavioural defences of Caenorhabditis elegans. Environm. Microbiol. 9:12-25 [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2006.01099.x
  • Velavan TP, Schulenburg H, Michiels NK (2007): Development and characterization of novelmicrostatellite markers for the common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) Mol. Ecol. Notes, [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01776.x


  • Anthes, N, Putz, A, Michiels NK (2006): Hermaphrodite sex role preferences: the role of partner body size, mating history and female fitness in the sea slug Chelidonura sandrana. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 60: 359-367. [full text], DOI: 10.1007/s00265-006-0173-5
  • Anthes N, Putz A, Michiels NK (2006): Sex role preferences, gender conflict and sperm trading in simultaneous hermaphrodites: a new framework . Animal Behaviour Volume: 72, Issue: 1, Pages: 1-12, [full text], DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.09.017
  • D'Souza TG, Michiels NK. (2006): Genetic signatures of occasional sex in parthenogenetic subpopulations of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Freshw. Biol., 51: 1890-1900. [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2006.01622.x
  • D'Souza TG, Schulte RD, Schulenburg H, Michiels NK. (2006): Paternal inheritance in parthenogenetic forms of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Heredity Volume: 97, Pages: 97-101, [full text], DOI: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800841
  • Field SG, Michiels NK (2006): Does the Gregarine Monocystis sp. manipulate host surface behaviour in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris? Soil Biol. Biochem. 38(6) 1334-1339 [full text], DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.08.022
  • König S, Mehlich A-M, Büllesbach J, Michiels N (2006): Allohormones inLumbricus terrestris? Mass spectrometry of the setal gland product indicates possible role of ubiquitin. Invertebrate reproduction and development 49 (1-2): 103-111
  • Lüttmann K, Anthes N, Riss S, D’Souza TG, Michiels NK (2006): Population size estimate of a reef flat aggregation of Chromodoris annulata (Opisthobranchia, Chromodoridae). J. Moll. Stud. 72: 214-216 [full text], DOI: 10.1093/mollus/eyi065
  • Michiels NK, Koene JM (2006): Sexual selection favours harmful mating in hermaphrodites more than in gonochorists. Integrative and Comparative Biology 46: 473-480 [full text], DOI: 10.1093/icb/icj043
  • Wägele, H., I. Burghardt, N. Anthes, J. Evertsen, A. Klussmann-Kolb & G. Brodie (2006): Species diversity of Opisthobranch Molluscs from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Suppl. 69: 33-60.


  • Anthes N, Putz A, Michiels NK (2005): Gender trading in a hermaphrodite. Current Biology 15: R792-R793, [full text], DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2005.09.035
  • Anthes N, Michiels NK (2005): Do "sperm trading" simultaneous hermaphrodites always trade sperm? Behav. Ecol. 15: 188-195. [full text], DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arh150
  • D'Souza TG, Storhas M, Michiels NK (2005): The effect of polyploidy on fitness in a parthenogenetic flatworm. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 85: 191-198. [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00482.x
  • Field SG, Michiels NK (2005): Parasitism and growth in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris: fitness costs of the gregarine parasite Monocystis sp. Parasitology 130, Pages: 397-403, [full text], DOI: 10.1017/S0031182004006663
  • Haber M, Schüngel M, Putz A, Müller S, Hasert B, Schulenburg H (2005): Evolutionary history of Caenorhabditis elegans inferred from microsatellites: evidence for spatial and temporal genetic differentiation and the occurrence of outbreeding. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22:160-173, [full text], DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msh264
  • Koene JM, Schulenburg H (2005): Shooting darts: co-evolution and counter-adaptation in hermaphroditic snails. BMC-Evol. Biol. 5:25. [full text], DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-5-25
  • Koene JM, Pförtner T, Michiels NK (2005): Piercing the partner's skin influences sperm storage in earthworms. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 59:243-249.[full text], DOI: 10.1007/s00265-005-0030-y
  • Schärer L, Sandner P, Michiels NK (2005): Trade-off between male and female allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum sp. J. Evol. Biol. 18:396-404, [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2004.00827.x
  • Schulenburg H, Roeder T (2005): Innate immunity: building bridges in the lake district of Plön in Northern Germany. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 29:91-93. [full text], DOI: 10.1016/j.dci.2004.06.003


Bruvo R, Michiels NK, D'Souza TG, Schulenburg H (2004):
A simple method for the calculation of microsatellite genotype distances irrespective of ploidy level. Mol. Ecol. 13:2101-2106, [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02209.x

D'Souza TG, Storhas M, Schulenburg H, Beukeboom LW, Michiels NK (2004):
Occasional sex in an "asexual" polyploid hermaphrodite. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 271:1001-1007, [full text], DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2004.2675

Field SG, Kurtz J, Cooper EL, Michiels NK (2004):
Evaluation of an Innate Immune Reaction to Parasites in Earthworms. J. Inv. Pathol. 86:45-49, [full text], DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2004.04.001

Schulenburg H, Ewbank JJ (2004):
Diversity and specificity in the interactions between the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the pathogenic bacterium Serratia marcescens. BMC-Evol. Biol. 4:49 [full text], DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-4-49

Schulenburg H, Kurz CL, Ewbank JJ (2004):
Evolution of the innate immune system - the worm perspective. Immunol. Rev. 198:36-58, [full text], DOI: 10.1111/j.0105-2896.2004.0125.x

Schulenburg H, Müller S (2004):
Natural variation in the response of Caenorhabditis elegans towards Bacillus thuringiensis. Parasitology 128:433-443, [full text], DOI: 10.1017/S003118200300461X


Norbert Pongratz, Martin Storhas, Salvador Carranza and Nicolaas K Michiels (2003)
Phylogeography of competing sexual and parthenogenetic forms of a freshwater flatworm: patterns and explanations. BMC Evolutionary Biology 3:23, [full text], DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-3-23

Field SG, Schirp HJ, Michiels NK (2003):
The influence of Monocystis sp infection on growth and mating behaviour of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris Canadian Journal of Zoology 81 (7): 1161-1167, [full text], DOI: 10.1139/z03-110

Pongratz N, Michiels NK (2003):
High multiple paternity and low last-male sperm precedence in a hermaphroditic planarian flatworm: consequences for reciprocity patterns Molecular Ecology 12 (6): 1425-1433 [full text], DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01844.x

Michiels NK, Kuhl A (2003):
Altruistic sperm donation in a sperm-dependent parthenogenetic hermaphrodite is stabilized by reciprocal sperm exchange Journal of Zoology 259: 77-82 Part 1, [full text], DOI: 10.1017/S095283690200300X

Michiels NK, Raven-Yoo-Heufes A, Brockmann KK (2003):
Sperm trading and sex roles in the hermaphroditic opisthobranch sea slug Navanax inermis: eager females or opportunistic males? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 78 (1): 105-116 [full text], DOI: 10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00135.x


Schulenburg JHGvd, Hurst GDD, Tetzlaff D, Booth GE, Zakharov IA, Majerus MEN (2002):
History of infection with different male-killing bacteria in the two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata revealed through mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. Genetics 160(3):1075-1086. [full text]

Sloggett JJ, Volkl W, Schulze W, Schulenburg JHGvd, Majerus MEN (2002):
The ant-associations and diet of the ladybird Coccinella magnifica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 99:565-569. [full text]

Koene JM, Sundermann G, Michiels NK (2002):
On the function of body piercing during copulation in earthworms Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 41 (1-3): 35-40

Pongratz N, Gerace L, Michiels NK (2002):
Genetic differentiation within and between populations of a hermaphroditic freshwater planarian HEREDITY 89: 64-69 Part 1 [full text], DOI: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800102


Michiels NK, Beukeboom LW, Pongratz N, Zeitlinger J (2001):
Parthenogenetic flatworms have more symbionts than their coexisting, sexual conspecifics. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14(1): 110-119.

Michiels NK, Hohner A, Vorndran I (2001):
Pre-copulatory mate assessment in relation to body size in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris: avoidance of dangerous liaisons? Behavioral Ecology 12(5): 612-618.

Pongratz N, Gerace L, Martin Alganza A, Beukeboom LW, Michiels NK (2001):
Microsatellite development and inheritance in the planarian flatworm Schmidtea polychroa. Belg. J. Zool. 131: 71-75.

Schulenburg JHGvd, Hancock JM, Pagnamenta A, Sloggett JJ, Majerus MEN, Hurst GDD (2001):
Extreme length and length variation in the first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Mol. Biol. Evol. 18:648-660.

Schulenburg JHGvd, Habig M, Sloggett JJ, Webberley KM, Bertrand D, Hurst GDD, Majerus MEN (2001):
Incidence of male-killing Rickettsia spp. (a-Proteobacteria) in the ten-spot ladybird beetle Adalia decempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 67:270-277.

Jiggins FM, Schulenburg JHGvd, Hurst GDD, Majerus MEN (2001):
Recombination confounds interpretations of Wolbachia evolution. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 268:1423-1427.

Jiggins FM, Hurst GDD, Schulenburg JHGvd, Majerus MEN (2001):
Two male-killing Wolbachia strains coexist within a population of the butterfly Acraea encedon. Heredity 86:161-166.


Michiels NK, Bakovski B (2000):
Sperm trading in a hermaphroditic flatworm: Reluctant fathers and sexy mothers. Animal Behaviour 59: 319-325.

Storhas MG, Weinzierl RP, Michiels NK (2000):
Paternal sex in parthenogenetic planarians: a tool to investigate the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13(1): 1-8.


Greeff JM, Storhas MG, Michiels NK (1999):
Reducing losses to offspring mortality by redistributing resources. Functional Ecology 13(6): 786-792.

Greeff JM, Michiels NK (1999):
Low potential for sexual selection in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. Proceedings of the Royal Society,Series B266: 1671-1676.

Michiels NK, Beukeboom LW, Greeff JM, Pemberton AJ (1999):
Individual control over reproduction: an underestimated element in the maintenance of sex? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12:1036-1039.

Michiels NK (1999):
Sexual adaptation to high density in hermaphrodites. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 36(1-3): 35-40.

Weinzierl RP, Schmidt P, Michiels NK (1999):
High fecundity and low fertility in parthenogenetic planarians. Invertebrate Biology 118(2): 87-94.

Weinzierl RP, Beukeboom LW, Gerace L, Michiels NK (1999):
Spatial and ecological overlap between coexisting sexual and parthenogenetic Schmidtea polychroa Tricladida; Platyhelminthes? Hydrobiologia 392(11): 179-185.

Greeff JM, Michiels NK (1999):
Sperm digestion and reciprocal sperm transfer can drive hermaphrodite sex allocation to equality. American Naturalist 153(4): 421-430.


Beukeboom LW, Sharbel TF, Michiels NK. (1998):
Reproductive modes, ploidy distribution, and supernumerary chromosome frequencies of the flatworm Polycelis nigra (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida). Hydrobiologia 383: 277-285.

Vreys C, Michiels NK (1998):
Sperm trading by volume in a hermaphroditic flatworm with mutual penis intromission. Animal Behaviour 56(3): 777-785.

Beukeboom LW, Seif, M, Plowman AB, De Ridder F, Michiels NK (1998):
Phenotypic fitness effects of B chromosomes in the pseudogamous parthenogenetic planarian Polycelis nigra. Heredity 80(5): 594-603.

Michiels NK. (1998):
Mating conflicts and sperm competition in simultaneous hermaphrodites. pp. 219-254. In: Birkhead TR, Møller AP (eds), Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection. Academic Press, London.

Pongratz N, Sharbel T, Beukeboom LW, Michiels NK (1998):
Allozyme variability in sexual and parthenogenetic freshwater planarians - evidence for polyphyletic origin of parthenogenetic lineages through hybridization with coexisting sexuals. Heredity 81(1): 38-47.

Michiels NK, Streng A. (1998):
Sperm exchange in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 42: 171-178.

Weinzierl RP, Berthold K, Beukeboom LW, Michiels NK (1998):
Reduced male allocation in a parthenogenetic hermaphrodite (Dugesia polychroa, Tricladida, Platyhelminthes). Evolution 52(1): 109-115.

Michiels NK, Newman LJ (1998):
Sex and violence in hermaphrodites. Nature 391(6668): 647.


Vreys C, Michiels NK (1997):
Flatworms flatten to size up each other. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B 264: 1559-1564.

Vreys C, Schockaert ER, Michiels NK. (1997):
Formation, transfer and assimilation of the spermatophore of the hermaphroditic planarian Dugesia gonocephala (Tricladida, Paludicola). Canadian Journal of Zoology 75: 1479-1486.

Ramachandran S, Beukeboom LW, Gerace L, Pavlovic N, Carranza S, Michiels NK. (1997):
Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in the planarian Dugesia polychroa. Molecular Ecology 6: 389-391.

Vreys C, Schockaert ER, Michiels NK (1997):
Unusual pre-copulatory behaviour in the hermaphroditic planarian flatworm, Dugesia gonocephala (Tricladida, Paludicola). Ethology 103: 208-221.


Peters A, Michiels NK (1996):
Do simultaneous hermaphrodites choose their mates? Effects of body size in a planarian flatworm. Freshwater Biology 36: 623-630.

Beukeboom LW, Seif M, Mettenmeyer T, Plowman AB, Michiels NK (1996):
Paternal inheritance of B chromosomes in a parthenogenetic hermaphrodite. Heredity 77: 646-654.

Beukeboom LW, Weinzierl RP, Reed KM, Michiels NK (1996):
Distribution and origin of chromosomal races in the freshwater planarian Dugesia polychroa (Turbellaria: Tricladida). Hereditas 124(1): 7-15.

Peters A, Michiels NK (1996):
Evidence for lack of inbreeding avoidance by selective mating in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Invertebrate Biology 115(2): 99-103.

Peters A, Streng A, Michiels NK (1996):
Mating behaviour in a hermaphroditic flatworm with reciprocal insemination: do they assess their mates during copulation? Ethology 102(3): 236-251.

Nuyts E, Michiels NK (1996):