Sinologie

Sino-German Mobility Programme (2020-2023): Transfer of Technical and Scientific Knowledge between Europe and China during the Early Modern Period / 近代早期中欧技术科学知识的转移

Prof. Hans Ulrich Vogel, Chair for Chinese History and Society, Department of Chinese Studies, Tübingen University, and Prof. Zhang Baichun 张柏春, Center for Comparative Studies, Institute for the History of Natural Sciences (IHNS), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, have been generously granted an amount of ca. 200.000 € by the Sino-German Center for Research Promotion (SGCRP, Chinesisch-Deutsches Zentrum für Wissenschaftsförderung, 中德科学中心), Beijing . This grant is destined for the establishment of a Sino-German Mobility Programme dealing with the "Transfer of Technical and Scientific Knowledge between Europe and China during the Early Modern Period" (近代早期中欧技术科学知识的转移). Originally it was granted for the period 2020-2022, but due to the Covid crisis extended for another year until the end of 2023.
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Detailed Version of the Project Application


Patrick Aberle, M.A., PhD cand.: Report on Research Trip to China, 28 Aug to 10 Sep 2023

In the late summer of 2023, the Sino-German Mobility, sponsored by the Sino-German Centre for Research Promotion (SGCRP), generously granted me assistance to embark on a short but intense research journey to China. In early September, I had the privilege to be hosted by the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences (IHNS) at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. Under the direction of Prof. Dr. Zhang Baichun and Dr. Li Mingyang, the institute facilitated an academic exchange where I presented on “Knowledge of Tallow Tree Cultivation in Premodern China: A Temporal and Spatial Analysis,” a topic that aligns closely with my ongoing research. This served as an exceptional platform for engaging discussions and the exchange of ideas with IHNS professors and students. 
In the subsequent days, Dr. Li Mingyang was particularly helpful as he provided a tour of the library premises and introduced me to the relevant holdings of the Institute. Beyond that, the generous support of the Sino-German Mobility Programme enabled me to conduct extensive research at the National Library of China where I located much-needed material for my ongoing research. Lastly, I was able to meet with an expert in the legal history of the Qingshui River Basin manuscripts, who provided me with new insights and valuable information on primary sources, as well as with relevant advice for my research.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Dr. Hans Ulrich Vogel, Prof. Dr. Zhang Baichun, Dr. Li Mingyang, and the Sino-German Centre for Research Promotion for their invaluable support and for granting me the privilege to participate in this program. Because of the profound importance of scholarly exchange between Chinese and Western researchers in the realm of the history of science and technology as well as other fields, I sincerely appreciate the contribution of the Sino-German Mobility Programme as it serves as a platform conducive to fostering such dialogue. I eagerly anticipate forthcoming opportunities for similar engagements.

Dr. Zheng Cheng 郑诚: Report on Research Trip to Germany, 19 August to 14 November, 2023

Thanks to the Sino-German Mobility Programme, funded by the Sino-German Centre for Research Promotion (SGCRP), I was honoured to receive an invitation from Prof. Dr. Hans Ulrich Vogel at the University of Tübingen to undertake a 12-week research trip to Germany. My general expectations for this trip included an in-depth investigation of the pre-1912 Chinese maps in Germany and German maps of China before 1914; the Chinese rare books and manuscripts located in Germany; the firearms in early modern period, particularly the old Chinese guns preserved in Germany; as well as the history of German Sinology and that of the Sino-German relationship.
In the first week, I participated in the 16th International Conference on the History of Science in East Asia (ICHSEA) at Goethe University Frankfurt, and on 21 August, I presented “Nine-section Bronze Cannon in Eighteenth-Century China” in a panel titled “Knowledge Transfer between Europe and Ming-Qing China – Technology” which was co-organised by Dr. Alexander Jost and Dr. Cao Jin. 
For the following five weeks, I was primarily based in Berlin. My workdays were mostly spent in the Maps reading room of Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, where I surveyed old Chinese map collections and rediscovered several hidden gems. Concurrently, I conducted research at the Oriental and East-Asia reading room of Stabi, the library of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, and the Archives of the Max Planck Society. I am profoundly grateful for the assistance provided by Dr. Cathleen Päthe, Prof. Dr. Dagmar Schäfer, and Mr. Florian Spillert. At Spandau Citadel, I examined F. Verbiest's bronze gun produced in Beijing in 1689, and I also encountered two Japanese bronze guns from the late Edo period. At the end of September, I visited the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel to review some rare Chinese books.
The first half of October and the last nine days of my trip were spent in Munich. There, I consulted the collections of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and visited various galleries and museums. I also managed to check another piece of Verbiest’s 1689 bronze gun at the Bavarian Army Museum in Ingolstadt.
In the latter half of October, I was warmly welcomed by the Department of Chinese Studies at the University of Tübingen. Prof. Dr. Achim Mittag, Prof. Dr. Huang Fei, Prof. Dr. Emily Graf, Mr. Jonas Schmid, Ms. Han Qijin, Mr. Patrick Aberle, Mr. Kobayashi Takahiro, along with other researchers and students, were extremely supportive. On 24 October, I gave a presentation “Mapping Peking 1688-1914: A Czech Jesuit and a Russian Priest, Chinese Painters and German Soldiers, the Interweaving of City Plans,” incorporating my new findings from Berlin. My time in Tübingen also included visits to local museums, collections, bookstores, and the university libraries where I located old Chinese and Tibetan manuscripts. 
In early November, at the invitation of Dr. Alexander Jost, I visited Freilassing-Salzburg and presented “Mapping Peking 1688-1914” on 3 November at the Forum Asia Pacific of the Paris Lodron University Salzburg. I also visited the libraries of Paris Lodron University and Admont Abbey, which was facilitated by the much-appreciated kindness of Dr. Alexander Jost and Dr. Cao Jin.
To conclude my report, this research trip was immensely fruitful and left me with many cherished memories. With the materials I collected in Germany, I plan to compose several articles, including a study on the old Chinese maps in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin.

Dr. Chen Zhihui 陈志辉: Report on Research Trip to Germany, 13 to 26 August, 2023

With the support of the Sino-German Mobility Programme, and after receiving patient guidance from Ms. Han Qijin, I arrived in Germany on August 13th to embark on a 14-day academic visit. In Tübingen, I had the honour of being received by Prof. Achim Mittag. During my visit, I had the opportunity to explore the Department of Chinese Studies at the University of Tübingen and its affiliated library, where I learned about the collection and utilization of Sinology literature and materials. Additionally, I had the privilege of presenting my academic works, including Integrated the West and Inherit the Lost 融西繼絕 (Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2022).
After concluding my visit in Tübingen, I spent two days in Stuttgart, where I visited the Schweine-Museum. On August 20th, I travelled to Frankfurt to participate in the 16th International Conference on the History of Science in East Asia at the Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. Over the next five days, I attended keynote lectures and special presentations. On the afternoon of August 24th, I organized a panel titled “The Asian-Euro Mutual Learning and Interpenetration of the Civilization of Science and Technology in the Early Modern Period” and presented my academic paper, “A Preliminary Study on Alexander Wylie’s Work about the Sino-Western Names Correspondence of the Fixed Stars”. Five presenters from Beijing Foreign Studies University, the University of Science and Technology of China, and Inner Mongolia Normal University delivered their papers. Scholars from Peking University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Utrecht University in the Netherlands, and Korea attended the presentations and engaged in in-depth discussions and exchanges after the event.
Through this invaluable opportunity to visit Germany, I gained insights into the “Transfer of Technical and Scientific Knowledge between Europe and China during the Early Modern Period” research project, the Chinese literary collections at the Department of Chinese Studies at the University of Tübingen, and the Chinese rare book collection catalogued by Alfred Forke (1867–1944) at the Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. I also received valuable advice and suggestions during my interactions. I plan to maintain contact with professors and scholars from the University of Tübingen and the Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, including Prof. Hans Ulrich Vogel, Prof. Achim Mittag, and Prof. Iwo Amelung, and to deepen my research into the history of scientific exchange between China and Europe.

16th International Conference on the History of Science in East Asia (ICHSEA) at Frankfurt University, 21 to 25 August 2023

At this year’s 16th ICHSEA, which was held at Frankfurt University from 21 to 25August, numerous members and associates of our project presented and discussed their research results. Cao Jin 曹晉introduced the different phases, in which the production and application of nitric acid was introduced by Jesuits into China; Sabine Kink discussed the efficiency and potential of proposals for disaster relief included in the Taixi shuifa 泰西水法; Alexander Jost spoke about representations of the polar regions and polar phenomena in Chinese Jesuit geographic works; Han Qijin 韓奇金provided insights into the introduction of the European thermometer to the Kangxi court; Anna Strob’s topic was the reception and rejection of Aristotelian cosmology by Chinese scholars, while Jonas Schmidt demonstrated by the example of the Huogong qieyao 火攻挈要, how Jesuits involved into military matters during the late Ming period.
Moreover, it was excellent to see that partly with the support of the Sino-German Mobility Programme a large number of our Chinese colleagues could join the event and allowed us to continue the fruitful exchange which had commenced with our Beijing conference in spring 2019. These were Zhang Baichun 张柏春, Tian Miao 田淼, Zheng Cheng 郑诚, Huang Xing 黄兴, and Sun Chengsheng 孙承晟 (Chinese Academy of Sciences), Shi Yunli 石云里(University of Science and Technology of China), Shang Zhicong 尚智丛 (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences), Thierry Meynard (Sun Yat-sen University) and Han Qi 韩琦(Zhejiang University). The two panels organized by Cao Jin and Alexander Jost, in which most of our presentations took place, were well visited, and it was agreed that with the support of the journal Chinese Annals of History of Science and Technology a selection of research results will be published.
Special thanks go to Iwo Amelung from Frankfurt University, who did a wonderful job organizing this meeting together with his colleagues from Frankfurt Chinese Studies and offered us this great platform for academic exchange!
Panels and the abstracts of the individual lectures of the conference.

Prof. Dr. Han Qi 韩琦: Report on Research Trip to Germany, 3 to 26 August 2023

Upon receiving an invitation from Prof. Dr. Hans Ulrich Vogel at the University of Tübingen, I took this valuable opportunity and visited Germany from 3 to 26 August, 2023. This allowed me to visit several libraries and universities and to engage with many distinguished scholars in my field.
I began at the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin, making use of the extensive collections at the Max-Planck Institute. My research there predominantly focused on the European Jesuits and their work on science and technology during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. I also explored both individual scientific works and collective writings of European academics. These efforts facilitated insightful discussions with Dr. Martina Siebert of the Staatsbibliothek, Prof. Dr. Li Wenchao who is known for his work on Leibniz, and Prof. Dr. Dagmar Schafer of the Max-Planck Institute. In addition, I had an opportunity to visit Prof. Dr. Eberhard Knobloch of the Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and discussed with him the Jesuits’ contribution in Germany and the legacy of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
On 15 August, my journey took me to Wurzburg University, where I met with Dr. Claudia von Collani, a key figure in the study of the Jesuit mission in China. We exchanged insights on the Jesuits and the transmission of European scientific knowledge to China. Apart from this, my time at Heidelberg University also proved valuable. Dr. Hanno Lecher introduced me to the Chinese resources in their library. This visit also enabled discussions with Prof. Dr. Joachim Kurtz who specializes in modern Chinese history, and Dr. Martin Hoffman. I also had a productive conversation with Prof. Dr. Andrea Breard of Erlangen University. Between 21 and 25 August, I attended the 16th International Conference on the History of Science in East Asia at the Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, sharing with, and gaining knowledge from, international peers.
To conclude, this trip not only gave me access to a wealth of academic resources, but also broadened my understanding of research methods through various interactions with German scholars.

Prof. Dr. Lü Lingfeng 吕凌峰: Report on Research Trip to Germany, 14 July to 04 August 2023

I am immensely pleased to have participated in, and benefited from, the Sino-German Mobility Programme, for which I applied some years ago. Over a 22-day visit in Germany, I explored research institutes and museums in Frankfurt, Tübingen, Stuttgart, Erlangen, and Berlin. During this time, I engaged in insightful academic discussions with esteemed German scholars, and in interactions that hold the promise of fostering greater academic cooperation and exchanges in the future.
In Frankfurt, I had the distinct privilege of talking with Prof. Iwo Amelung, the head of the Department of Sinology at Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, and his dedicated team. Our discussions chiefly cantered on the influence of the Frankfurt School in China, a subject I often delve into during my lectures for doctoral students at my university in Hefei, China. Later in Tübingen, I attended the intriguing cultural event “Eine Traumreise aus China nach Tübingen: Festliche Vorstellung eines Imagefilm-Projekts” and enjoyed valuable academic interactions with fellow sinology scholars. It is worth noting that Mr. Philip Scherer visited me in Hefei shortly after my return to China. 
In Erlangen, my conversation with Prof. Michael Lackner was especially enlightening. I reported in detail on my distinctive method of employing the narrative of Western art for teaching the history of Western science and philosophy each year to a large number of doctoral students at my university in China. In Berlin, I visited several eminent museums, placing particular emphasis on exhibits that highlighted knowledge exchanges between China and the Middle East or Arab regions, which aligns with my ongoing research on knowledge exchanges between China and the ancient Iran. Moreover, given my past association as a Humboldt research fellow twenty years ago, a visit to both Humboldt University and the Humboldt Forum was a fitting homage, which further enriched my understanding of Humboldt’s profound influence on global education.
At the end of my report, I would like to express my profound gratitude for the unwavering support extended by this program. The knowledge acquired during this journey will undoubtedly inform and enhance my future teaching and research pursuits. My aim remains steadfast: to illuminate the minds of the next generation of Chinese scholars on the intricate tapestry of Western intellectual history and the history of East-West interactions.

Prof. Dr. Shang Zhicong 尚智丛: Report on Research Trip to Germany, 31 July to 20 August 2023

In 2023, the Sino-German Mobility Program granted me the support for a three-week research visit to Germany. My stay during late July and August was primarily at the Department of Chinese Studies, University of Tübingen. Thanks to the collective efforts of Prof. Dr. Hans Ulrich Vogel, Prof. Dr. Achim Mittag and Mrs. Han Qijin, I took part in an academic gathering, where I shared insights from my study titled “Gewu qiongli zhi xue 格物穷理之学: ‘A Learning by Investigation’ from the late Ming to early Qing periods”. This occasion provided a vibrant floor for intellectual dialogues with scholars and students affiliated with the Department of Chinese Studies.
Further enriching this experience was my exploration of libraries and archives across German cities such as Berlin, Munich, Cologne, and Frankfurt, facilitated by the Sino-German Mobility Programme. This journey deepened my understanding of the knowledge and philosophical exchanges between China and Europe in the Early Modern Era and thus constitutes a milestone in my academic journey, for which I am truly thankful.
I must also convey my deep thanks to Prof. Dr. Zhang Baichun, Dr. Li Mingyang, and the team at the Sino-German Centre for Research Promotion for their trust and encouragement. I am enthusiastic about forthcoming collaborations and dialogues with scholars from both the West and China, exploring the intricacies of East-West historical interactions.

Dr. CAO Jin 曹晉: Report on Research Trip to China, 29 June to 26 July 2023

In 2019, the Sinology Department at University of Tübingen and the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences (IHNS) at the Chinese Academy of Sciences were honoured to receive a three-year grant to set up a Mobility Programme by the Sino-German Science Centre. After a first research visit at the beginning of 2020, my research travelling had to be interrupted due to the sudden outbreak of CoVid, a situation which impacted academic cooperation around the world deeply. Luckily, international travel is now returning to normal and the Mobility programme has been extended for another year. Therefore, I was fortunate enough to benefit from the project and spent four weeks from 29 June to 26 July 2023 in China for travel and academic activities.
In Beijing, at the invitation of the Institute of the History of Natural Sciences, I gave a presentation entitled “Jesuits and Qiangshui 强水 (Aqua fortis/ nitric acid) during the Ming and Qing Dynasties”, where I was able to discuss in depth with many colleagues the process of spreading and the impact of nitric acid, a new material introduced to China from the West during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and to speak about our research project departing from this topic. In addition, we discussed plans for the upcoming 16th International Conference on the History of Science in East Asia (ICHSEA) in Frankfurt in August, where two panels, “Knowledge Transfer between Europe and Ming-Qing China: Science” and “Knowledge Transfer between Europe and Ming-Qing China: Technology”, organised by Alexander Jost and myself, will be held. These two panels will feature 17 scholars presenting and discussing their respective research in this area, most of whom have been or will be supported by the Mobility Programme for their visit to China and Germany. 
In addition, I have also collected and researched historical materials at the First Historical Archives of China in Beijing, and at the Nanjing Library and Nantong University in Jiangsu Province, obtaining many valuable sources for my current research on the history of the Kunyu gezhi 坤輿格致 manuscript, the operation of the glassworks in the Qing Dynasty, and reed-land policy of Jianghuai, etc. My visits to the above institutions have also further deepened our academic cooperations.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the Mobility Programme of the Sino-German Science Centre for facilitating my travel and stay in China. During my trips, I deeply felt the great impact of this programme on the exchange of visits and communication between Chinese and German scholars, as well as on the promotion of academic progress. Just as our research project focuses on the scientific and cultural exchanges between China and the West during the Ming and Qing dynasties, huitong 會通 (lit. to meet and to comprehend) is also indispensable for the current academic community and for our society as a whole.

Prof. Dr. Thomas Zimmer: Report on Research Trip to Germany, 20 June to 26 August 2023

As a participant in the Sino-German Mobility Program, I had the honour of spending several weeks in Germany to further my research on the topic of scientific exchange between China and Europe. My research journey began with two presentations in Bonn, stemming from my recent publication, The Stranger in the Middle: A Conceptual and Cultural-Historical Outline of China’s Spatial Conceptions in the Late Imperial Period (Vienna/Cologne: Böhlau 2023). This publication includes a detailed chapter on scientific exchange activities between China and Europe starting from the late sixteenth century.
On 22 June 2023, I was invited by the Institute Monumenta Serica in St. Augustin (Bonn) to present a lecture on “The Struggle for Clarity and Truth: The Nature and Role of Translations in the Transfer of Knowledge Between Europe and China from the 16th to the 18th Century”. On 26 June, I participated in an event at the Confucius Institute in Bonn, where a German professor from Jiaotong University in Shanghai shared insights on the recent developments in Chinese dialects. Thereafter on 28 June, Mr. Böttger, the owner of a bookshop in the centre of Bonn, invited me to discuss “China’s Historical Practice in Dealing with Foreign Countries” with a broader audience. 
Thanks to the invitation of Prof. Dr. Hans Ulrich Vogel and Prof. Dr. Achim Mittag, I had a productive stay at the University of Tübingen from 10 to 14 July. The Department of Chinese Studies invited me to present in two events held on 13 July: a session of translation exercise focusing on Feng Guifen’s text Cai Xixue yi (采西學議), and a lecture for Sinology students on China’s traditional mechanism acting as a global power.
Considering the challenges of personal academic exchanges between China and Germany in recent years, the German Association of Young Scholars in Chinese Studies invited me to a workshop titled “Social Practices in Contemporary Chinese Studies”. This workshop, held on 22 and 23 July in Iserlohn, allowed me to deliver a speech entitled “Current Developments of Research Conditions for International Scholars in the People’s Republic of China”.
Throughout my visits to Bonn, Tübingen, and Iserlohn, I engaged in meaningful discussions with prominent scholars and students about the development of scientific exchange. I also gained valuable advice for my future research and received updates on recent publications and institutional developments at several departments of Chinese studies such as in Heidelberg.
Finally, I would like to thank the organizers of the Sino-German Mobility Program, Prof. Dr. Hans Ulrich Vogel and Prof. Dr. Zhang Baichun, for offering me this opportunity, as well as to Prof. Dr. Achim Mittag and Mrs. Han Qijin in Tübingen. I also wish to thank Dr. Li Mingyang for his support from Beijing.

Han Qijin 韓奇金, M.A., PhD cand.: Report on Research Trip to China, 12 May to 30 June 2023

In early 2023, I had the privilege of receiving support from the Sino-German Mobility Programme, funded by the Sino-German Centre for Research Promotion (SGCRP), to conduct a 42-day research trip to China. During May and June 2023, I had the honour of being hosted by the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences (IHNS) at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. Under the coordination of Prof. Dr. Zhang Baichun and Dr. Li Mingyang, the institute organized an academic exchange where I gave a presentation on “The Introduction and Application of European Thermometers in China between the Kangxi and Qianlong Reigns (1662-1796)” that is closely related to my ongoing research. This provided an excellent platform for fruitful discussions and the exchange of ideas with both professors and students from the IHNS.
In addition, with the support of the Sino-German Mobility Programme and the recommendation letters provided by the IHNS, I was able to conduct extensive research at libraries and archives in various locations, including Beijing, Nanjing, and Shanghai. These resources proved to be invaluable in expanding my understanding of the transfer of technical and scientific knowledge between Europe and China during the Early Modern Period. Looking back, I highly appreciate the research experience that enabled me to access relevant resources, and the academic exchange that allowed me to present my research findings to a knowledgeable audience. These experiences have greatly encouraged me to refine my ideas for my doctoral dissertation.
Herewith I would also like to extend my heartfelt appreciation to Prof. Dr. Hans Ulrich Vogel, Prof. Dr. Zhang Baichun, Dr. Li Mingyang, and the Sino-German Centre for Research Promotion for their support and the opportunity to be part of this programme. In the meantime, I look forward to future opportunities for similar activities, particularly considering the immense significance of scholarly interchange between Chinese and Western researchers in the field of the History of East-West Interaction, and yet the limited availability of platforms that can facilitate such exchange.

Jonas Schmid, M.A., PhD cand.: Report on Research Trip to China, 12 May to 30 June 2023

As a participant in the Sino-German Mobility Programme, I had the honor of spending several weeks in the People’s Republic of China to continue my research on the “Essentials of Firearms” (Huogong qieyao 火攻挈要), a work on gunpowder weapons completed by Jiao Xu 焦勗 and Johann Adam Schall von Bell in 1643.
The research trip began in Beijing, where I presented parts of my translation of the “Essentials of Firearms” at a talk organized by the Institute of the History of Natural Sciences at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IHNS) and received valuable feedback from researchers. The staff of the IHNS also helped to establish contact with the National Library, which allowed me to consult some of the Renaissance European works on military affairs in the Beitang Library collection and to search for marginalia by Jesuit authors. Further research in the rich collections of the National Library and the First Historical Archives of China complemented my stay in Beijing.
During my subsequent stay in Shanghai, I consulted the holdings of the Shanghai Library, and in particular its Zikawei (Xujiahui) branch. The latter contains eighteenth-century sources on the Jesuit mission in China as well as early twentieth-century research on the Jesuits in China that is otherwise difficult to access.
My next stop was the Hubei Provincial Library in Wuhan, which holds an early manuscript copy of the “Essentials of Firearms”. Thanks to the help of Dr Zheng Cheng of the IHNS, I was able to consult a microfilm copy which helped me to clarify some ambiguous passages in later versions of this treatise. It is to be hoped that the Library will publish a facsimile version of this important source in the future.
I would like to thank the organizers of the Sino-German Mobility Programme, Prof. Dr. Hans Ulrich Vogel and Prof. Dr. Zhang Baichun, for the opportunity to participate in this exchange and to carry out the fieldwork, as well as Dr. Li Mingyang for his support during my stay in China.

"Twin" Panels at the 16th International Conference on the History of Science in East Asia (ICHSEA) at Frankfurt University, August 21-25, 2023

Our project will be present on this year's ICHSEA conference in Frankfurt, the most important international scholarly meeting in the field, which takes place every four years, with two "twin" panels organized by Dr. Cao Jin and Dr. Alexander Jost and named "Knowledge Transfer between Europe and Ming-Qing China - Science" and "Knowledge Transfer between Europe and Ming-Qing China - Technology". Members and associates of the project presenting at these panels are beside the organizers: Sabine Kink, Jonas Schmidt, Anna Strob and Han Qijin. With the support of our Sino-German Mobility Program it has become possible to invite a large number of participants from the P.R. China, which are Zhang Baichun, Zheng Cheng, Sun Chengsheng (Chinese Academy of Sciences), Shang Zhicong (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences), Gong Xu (University of Science and Technology of China), Thierry Meynard (Sun Yat-sen University) and Han Qi (Zhejiang University). Further presenters at the panels will be Shi Yunli (University of Science and Technology of China), Dominic Sachsenmaier (Göttingen University) and Angela Schottenhammer (KU Leuven). For the individual presentations see panels 13 and 14.

Adam SCHALL VON BELL, S. J. 湯若望 (Beijing) in Tübingen, 12 to 24 February 2021

Father Schall was the second participant of the mobility program. His visit to the Far West aimed at demonstrating how this table should look like, when people travel in the other direction. Furthermore, Pater Schall used the opportunity to explain details about the translation process of the Kunyu gezhi to members of the research project.

Dr. CAO Jin 曹晋 (Tübingen University) in Beijing, 9 to 22 January 2020

Dr. Cao was the first participant of the mobility program to depart for an exchange visit. During her fortnight stay in Beijing she met with Prof. ZHANG Baichun, Dr. LI Mingyang and other colleagues of CAS-IHNS to discuss the further proceeding of the program and relevant academic cooperation. Besides, she made use of her time in Beijing to carry out research and acquire sources especially at the Number One Historical Archives and the National Library of China.