Working Papers and Recent Publications by Jörg Baten


109 "Health Insurance and Height Inequality: Evidence from European Health Insurance Expansions", Joerg Baten, Alberto Batinti, Joan Costa-Font, Laura Radatz 2024 PDF
108 "Measuring Multidimensional Inequality and Conflict in Africa and in a Global Comparison", Laura Radatz and Joerg Baten 2022 PDF
107 "Age heaping and life course reckoning: Individual-level evidence from Spanish Inquisition records", Joerg Baten and Sara Nalle  2022 PDF
106 "Inequality and Life Expectancy in Africa and Asia, 1820-2000", Lisa Martin and Joerg Baten 2022 PDF
105 "Nutrition matters: Numeracy, Child Nutrition and Schooling Efficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa in long-term perspective", Sarah Ferber and Joerg Baten 2022 PDF
104 Technical Paper: Sources to update the Clioinfra dataset for Europe 2021 PDF
103 "Inequality, Low-Intensity Immigration and Human Capital Formation in the Regions of Chile, 1820-1939", Joerg Baten and Manuel Llorca-Jaña 2021 PDF
102 "Territorial State Capacity and Elite Violence from the 6th to the 19th Century", Joerg Baten, Thomas Keywood and Georg Wamser 2021 PDF
101 "Land Inequality in Numeracy in Spain During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century", Mari Carmen Pérez-Artéz and Joerg Baten 2021 PDF
100 "Numeracy Development in Africa: New Evidence from a Long-Term Perspective (1730 - 1970)", Gabriele Cappelli and Joerg Baten 2021 PDF


"The Influence of Colonialism on Africa's Welfare: An Anthrometric Study",

Jörg Baten and Laura Maravall


98 "Educational Gender Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Long-Term Perspective", with Michiel de Haas, Elisabeth Kempter and Felix Meier zu Selhausen  2020 PDF
97 a) "Growth disruption in children: linear enamel hypoplasias" (Chapter 6), from "The Backbone of Europe: Health, Diet, Work and Violence over Two Millennia" (Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press, 2019), with Zsolt Bereczki, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Antonia Marcsik and Nicholas J. Meinzer 2019 PDF
97 b) Agricultural Specialization, Urbanization, Workload and Stature (Chapter 8), from "The Backbone of Europe: Health, Diet, Work and Violence over Two Millennia" (Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press, 2019), with Nicholas J. Meinzer, Richard H. Steckel. 2019 PDF
97 c) The History of Violence in Europe: Evidence from Cranial and Postcranial Bone Trauma (Chapter 10), from "The Backbone of Europe: Health, Diet, Work and Violence over Two Millennia" (Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press, 2019), with Richard H. Steckel. 2019 PDF
97 d) Multidimensional Patterns of European Health, Work, and Violence over the Past Two Millennia (Chapter 13), from "The Backbone of Europe: Health, Diet, Work and Violence over Two Millennia" (Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press, 2019), with Richard H. Steckel, Clark Spencer Larsen and Charlotte A. Roberts. 2019 PDF
96 "Elite Violence and Elite Numeracy in Africa from 1400 CE to 1950 CE", with Kleoniki Alexopolou.  2021 PDF
95 "Elite Violence and Elite Numeracy in Europe from 500 to 1900 CE: A Co-Evolution?", with Thomas Keywood. 2019 PDF


"The Human Capital of Religious Minorities in Spain and Portugal during the Inquisition Era", with Dácil Juif and Mari Carmen Pérez-Artés. Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History. 2019


93 "Interpersonal violence in South Asia, 900-1900", with Sarah Gust 2019 PDF
92 a) "Height Development of Men and Women from China, South Korea, and Taiwan during the Rapid Economic Transformation Period of the 1960s to 1980s", with Daniel Schwekendiek. Economics and Human Biology. 2019 PDF
92 b) "Strategies to cope with potential labor market bias and other selectivities in height research" 2015 PDF
91 "Valkyries: Was gender inequality high in the Scandinavian periphery since Viking times? Evidence from enamel hypoplasia and height ratios", with Laura Maravall 2019 PDF
90 "Introduction to the Special Issue in Honor of John Komlos, the Founding Editor of Economics and Human Biology Economics and Human Biology" 2019 PDF
89 "Geography, land inequality and regional numeracy in Europe in historical perspective", with Ralph Hippe. Journal of Economic Growth. 2018 PDF
88 "Female autonomy generated successful long-term human capital development: Evidence from 16th to 19th century Europe", with Alexandra de Pleijt.  2018 PDF
87 "Compulsory licensing and innovation - Historical evidence from German patents after WWI", with Petra Moser and Nicola Bianchi 2017 PDF
86 "Girl Power" in Eastern Europe? The Human Capital Development of Central-Eastern and Eastern Europe in the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries and Its Determinants", with Mikołaj Szołtysek and Monica Campestrini 2017 PDF
85 “Economics, Human Biology and Inequality: a review of “puzzles” and recent contributions from a Deatonian perspective” 2017 PDF
84 "European Trade, Colonialism and Human Capital Accumulation in Senegal, Gambia and Western Mali, 1770 - 1900", with Gabriele Cappelli. CESifo Working Papers. 2017 PDF
83 "Farmers at the heart of the human capital revolution. Decomposing the numeracy increase in early modern Europe", with Franziska Tollnek. Economic History Review 2017 PDF
82 "Numeracy in Early Modern Korea, Japan, and China: the Age-Heaping Approach", with Kitae Sohn. Japan and the World Economy. 2017 PDF
81 "Institutional Quality, cash-Crop Farming, Colonialism and Early Numeracy Development in West Africa, 18th to early 20th Century", with Gabriele Cappelli 2017 PDF
80 "A Curse of ‘Point Source’ Resources? Cash Crops and Numeracy on the Philippines 19th-20th Century", with Jean-Pascal Bassino. 2016 PDF
79 "Age-Heaping-Based Human Capital Estimates", with Franziska Tollnek 2016 PDF
78 "Middle East and North Africa", with Rima Ghanem. From: "A History of the Global Economy. 1500 to the Present" 2016 PDF
77 "Numeracy of Africans, Asians, and Europeans during the Early Modern Period: New Evidence from Cape Colony Court Registers”, with Johan Fourie 2015 PDF
76 "Social and Intertemporal Differences of Basic Numeracy in Pannonia (1st Century BCE- 3rd Century CE)”, with Stefan Priwitzer 2015 PDF
75 "Poor, Hungry and Ignorant: Numeracy and the Impact of High Food Prices in Industrializing Britain, 1780-1850”, with Dorothee Crayen and Hans-Joachim Voth 2014 PDF
74 "The Changing Shape of Global Inequality 1820-2000. Exploring a New Dataset”, with Jan Luiten van Zanden, Péter Földvari, and Bas van Leeuwen 2014 PDF
73 "Why are you tall while others are short? Agricultural production and other proximate determinants of global heights”, with Matthias Blum 2014 PDF
72 a) "Human Height", with Matthias Blum. From "How was Life? Global Well-Being since 1820.", OECD Paris  2014 PDF
72 b) "Personal Security - Homicide, Interstate War, and Civil War", with Winny Bierman, Peter Foldvari and Jan Luiten van Zanden. "How was Life? Global Well-Being since 1820.", OECD Paris. 2014 PDF
71 "War der Adel eine Elitegruppe? Die 'Numeracy' verschiedener Sozialgruppen im Georgien des 19. Jahrhunderts“, with Tinatin Sirbiladze 2014 PDF
70 "A Story of Large Land-Owners and Math Skills: Inequality and Human Capital Formation in Long-Run Development, 1820-2000", with Dácil Juif. Journal of Comparative Economics. 2014 PDF

"On the Human Capital of Inca Indos before and after the Spanish Conquest", with Dácil Tania Juif

2013 PDF

"Growth effects of 19th century mass migrations: “Fome Zero” for Brazil?", with Yvonne Stolz, Joerg Baten and Tarcísio Botelho

2013 PDF
67 "Portuguese Living Standards 1720-1980 – Heights, Income and Human Capital", with Yvonne Stolz, Joerg Baten, and Jaime Reis 2013 PDF

"Long-Term Economic Growth and the Standard of Living in Indonesia”, with Mojgan Stegl and Pierre van der Eng

2013 PDF
65 "The Biological Standard of Living and Body Height in Colonial and Post-Colonial Indonesia, 1770–2000", with Mojgan Stegl and Pierre van der Eng. Journal of Bioeconomics 2013 PDF
64 "Big is beautiful" La productivité des entreprises en fonction de leur taille en Allemagne et aux États-Unis au tournant des XIX e -XX e siècles 2013 PDF
63 "The Early Regional Development of Human Capital in Europe, 1790 – 1880”, with Ralph Hippe 2012 PDF
62 "On the Status and the Future of Economic History in the World”, with Julia Muschallik 2012 PDF
61 "Convergence and Divergence of Numeracy: The Development of Age Heaping in Latin America, 17th to 20th Centuries", with Kerstin Manzel, Yvonne Stolz and Jörg Baten 2012 PDF
60 "Growing Tall, but Unequal: Biological Well-Being in World Regions and Its Determinants, 1810-1989", with Matthias Blum and Jörg Baten 2012 PDF
59 "An Anthropometric History of the World, 1810-1980: Did Migration and Globalization Influence Country Trends?” with Matthias Blum 2012 PDF
58 "Women count. Gender (In-)Equalities in the Human Capital Development in Asia, 1900-1960", with Julia Friesen and Valeria Prayon 2012 PDF
57 "Brain Drain, Numeracy and Skill Premia during the Era of Mass Migration: Reassessing the Roy-Borjas Model”, with Yvonne Stolz 2012 PDF
56 "The Biological Standard of Living in Early 19th-Century West Africa: New Anthropometric Evidence", with Gareth Austin, Bas van Leeuwen Jörg Baten 2012 PDF

"Foreign direct investment of German companies during globalization and deglobalization periods", with Gerhard Kling and Kirsten Labuske

2011 PDF
54 "Civil War Determinants From a Long-Term Perspective: Was There Impact Of Anthropometric Deprivation From 1816-1999?", with Christina Mumme and Jörg Baten 2011 PDF
53 "Anthropometric within-country Inequality and the Estimation of Skill Premia with Anthropometric Indicators", with Matthias Blum. Review of Economics 2011 PDF
52 "Children’s Height and Parental Unemployment: A LargeScale Anthropometric Study on Eastern Germany, 1994– 2006", with Andreas Böhm. German Economic Review. 2010 PDF
51 "Population and Living Standards 1914-1945", with Robert Millward. Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe. 2010 PDF

"Global Trends in Numeracy 1820-1949 and its Implications for Long-Term Growth", with Dorothee Crayen

2010 PDF
49 "New Evidence and New Methods to Measure Human Capital Inequality before and during the Industrial Revolution: France and the U.S. in the 17th to 19th Centuries", with Dorothee Crayen 2010 PDF

"Latin American Anthropometrics, Past and Present–an Overview", with Scott Carson and Jörg Baten

2010 PDF

Globalization and Educational Inequality in Long-Run Development during the 17th to 20th Centuries: Latin America and other Developing World Regions”, with Christina Mumme, Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History (forthcoming)

2010 PDF
46 "Did the Railway Increase Inequality? A Micro-Regional Analysis of Heights in the Hinterland of the Booming Ruhr Area During the Late 19th Century", with Georg Fertig 2010 PDF
45 "Trends of Children's Height and Parental Unemployment: A Large-Scale Anthropometric Study on Eastern Germany, 1994-2006", with Andreas Böhm 2010 unavailable
44 "Population and Living Standards 1914-45", with Robert Millward 2010 PDF
43 "Regional Determinants of Firm Creation in the Russian Empire. Evidence from the 1870 Industrial Exhibition", with Dominic Behle 2010 PDF

"Evolution of Living Standards and Human Capital in China in the 18-20th Centuries: Evidences from Real Wages, Age-heaping, and Anthropometrics", with Debin Ma, Stephen Morgan and Qing Wang

2010 PDF

"Population and Living Standards 1914-45", with Robert Millward

2010 PDF
40 "Quantifying Quantitative Literacy: Age Heaping and the History of Human Capital", with Brian A’Hearn and Dorothee Crayen 2009 PDF
39 "On the Persistence of Human Capital and Patent Effects Around 1900 on Per Capita Levels in the 1960s", with Kirsten Labuske 2009 PDF
38 "The Anthropometric History of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and early 20th Century", with Ines Pelger and Linda Twrdek 2009 PDF
37 "Protein Supply and Nutritional Status in Nineteenth Century Bavaria, Prussia and France" 2009 PDF
36 "Tall and Shrinking Muslims, Short and Growing Europeans: The Long-Run Welfare Development of the Middle East, 1850-1980", with Mojgan Stegl 2009 PDF

"Gender Equality and Inequality in Numeracy: The Case of Latin America and the Caribbean, 1880-1949", with Kerstin Manzel

2009 PDF
34 "Measuring Gender Well-Being with Biological Welfare Indicators" 2009 PDF
33 "Anthropometric Trends in Southern China, 1830-1864", with Sandew Hira 2008 PDF
32 "Book Production at the Onset of Modern Economic Growth", with Jan-Luiten Van Zanden 2008 PDF
31 "Agricultural Specialization and Height in Ancient and Medieval Europe", with Nikola Koepke 2008 PDF
30 "Heights, Inequality, and Trade in the Latin American Perphery, 1950-2004", with Markus Baltzer 2008 PDF

"Zahlenfaehigkeit und Zahlendisziplin in Nord- und Westdeutschland, 16.-18. Jahrhundert" Jahrbuch fuer Wirtschaftsgeschichte

2008 PDF
28 "Growth Accounting in Items of Turbulence and Death: Efficiency, Technology, Capital Accumulation and Human Capital 1929-1950" 2007 PDF
27 "What made southwest German firms innovative around 1900? Assessing the importance of intra- and inter-industry externalities", with Anna Spadavecchia, Jochen Streb, and Shuxi Yin 2007 PDF

"Exploring the evolution of living standards in Ghana, 1880-2000: An anthropometric approach”, with Gareth Austin and Alexander Moradi

2007 PDF
25 "Global height trends and its determinants, 1810-1984: an overview", with  Matthias Blum 2006 PDF
24 "The Development and Inequality of Heights in North, West and East India, 1910-44", with Aravinda Meera Guntupalli 2006 PDF
23 "Technological and Geographical Knowledge Spill-overs in the German Empire 1877-1918", with Jochen Streb and Shuxi Yin 2006 PDF
22 "Numeracy, Inequality, Age Heaping, and Economic Growth: New Estimation Strategies for Western Europe and the U.S. (17th - 19th centuries)" 2006 PDF
21 Climate and its Impact on the Biological Standard of Living in North-East, Centre-West, and South Europe during the last 2000 Years" History of Meteorology 2005 PDF
20 "Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa: New Data and New Insights from Antropometric Estimates", with Alexander Moradi 2005 PDF
19 "The Biological Standard of Living in Europe During the Last Two Millennia", with Nikola Koepke. European Review of Economic History. 2005 PDF
18 "Making Profits in War-Time: Corporate Profits, Inequality, and GDP in Germany During WWI", with Rainer Schulz 2005 PDF
17 "Market Integration and Disintegration of Poland and Germany in the 18th Century", with Jacek Wallusch. Economies et Societes (2005, forthcoming) 2005 PDF
16 "Did Partial Globalization Increase Inequality? The Case of the Latin American Periphery, 1950-2000", with Uwe Fraunholz. CESifo Economic Studies 50-1 (2004), pp. 45-84. 2004 PDF
15 "Creating Firms for a new Century: Determinants of Firm Creation in Southern Germany around 1900". European Review of Economic History 7-3 (2004), pp. 301-329 2004 PDF
14 "The Technical Component of Human Capital and its Determinants, in 51 Countries, 1880–1913" 2004 PDF
13 "Patenting Abroad and Human Capital Formation", with Kirsten Labuske 2004 PDF
12 "Autarchy, Market Disintegration, and Health: The Mortality and Nutritional Crisis in Nazi Germany 1933-37", with Andrea Wagner 2003 PDF
11 "Economic Determinants of Witch Hunting", with Ulrich Woitek 2003 PDF
10 "Mangelernährung, Krankheit und Sterblichkeit im NS-Wirtschaftsaufschwung (1933-1937)" 2003 PDF
9 "Climate, Grain Production and Nutritional Status in 18th Century Southern Germany" 2002

PDF  Appendix

8 "Economic Development and the Distribution of Nutritional Resources in Bavaria, 1797-1839" 2000 PDF
7 "Heights and real wages in the 18th and 19th centuries: an international overview" 2000  PDF Appendix 
6 "Anthopometrics, Consumption, and Leisure: The Standard of Living", in Sheilagh Ogilvie/Richard Overy (eds.), Germany: A New Social and Economic History, vol. III: 1800-1989. London: Edward Arnold, 2000 (forthcoming). 2000 PDF
5 "Heights of Men and Women in Nineteenth Century Bavaria: Economic, Nutritional, and Disease Influences" 2000 PDF
4 "Ernährung und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in Bayern", 1730-1880. Stuttgart (1999). [Nutrition and Economic Development in Bavaria, 1730-1880] 1999 PDF
3 "Smallpox and Nutritional Status in England, 1770-1873: On the Difficulties of Estimating Historical Heights", with Markus Heintel. Economic History Review 51-2 (1998), pp. 360-371 1998 PDF
2 "Women's Stature and Marriage Markets in Pre-Industrial Bavaria", with John Murray. Journal of Family History 23-2 (1998), pp. 124-135 1998 PDF
1 "A Most Difficult Case of Estimation: Argentinian Heights, 1770-1840", with Ricardo Salvatore, in John Komlos/Joerg Baten (eds.): The Biological Standard of Living in Comparative Perspective. Stuttgart 1998, pp. 90-96.  1998 PDF






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