Terrestrische Paläoklimatologie


Salamander remains from Western Siberian localities. (A–C), Cryptobranchidae indet. from the loc. Gusiny Perelet, unnr. PIN specimens; (A) fragmentary right dentary, natural cross-section; (B) the same dentary, in lingual view; (C) a jaw fragment, lingual view; (D–G) Salamandrella sp., Lezhanka 2 A, GIN 1130/1001-AM01, trunk vertebra; (H–S) Mioproteus sp.; (H–L) loc. Ayakoz, trunk vertebra, GNM unnr. specimen; (M–O) trunk vertebra, Borki 1A, GIN 1115/1001-AM01; (P, Q) right premaxilla, Malyi Kalkaman 2, GIN 1107/2001-AM01; (R, S) left premaxilla loc. Grytsiv (Ukraine), unnr. MNMHK specimen; (T–X) trunk vertebrae of aff. Chelotriton sp., loc. Ayakoz, GNM unnr. specimen; (Y) Chelotriton sp. from Malyi Kalkaman 2, GNM unnr. specimen; (D, H, M, P, R, T, Y) dorsal view; (E, I, N, Q, S, U) ventral view; (F, J, O, V) lateral view; (G, K, W) anterior view; (L, X) posterior view. Scale bars: A–C = 5 mm; D–G = 0.5 mm; H–Y = 1 mm.

Trunk vertebrae of fossil aff. Tylototriton (A–K) and recent Tylototriton, Echinotriton and Cynops (L–AE). (A–E) aff. Tylototriton sp., locality Ayakoz, GNM unnr. specimen; (F–K) GIN 950/2001-AM14 and GIN 950/2001-AM01, loc. Baikadam; (L–P) Tylototriton verrucosus, GPIT unnr. specimen; (Q–U) Tylototriton shanjing, GPIT unnr. specimen; (V–Z) Echinotriton andersoni, GPIT unnr. specimen; (AA–AE) Cynops pyrrhogaster, GPIT unnr. specimen; (A, F, G, L, Q, V, AA) lateral view; (B, H, M, R, W, AB) dorsal view; (C, I, N, S, X, AC) ventral view; (D, J, O, T, Y, AD) anterior view; (E, K, P, U, Z, AE) posterior view. Scale bars = 2 mm.

Palaeobatrichid sphenethmoids. (A–D) Palaeobatrachidae indet., Novaya Stanitsa 1A, GIN 948/2001-AM12; (E–H) Palaeobatrachus sp. from Grytsiv (Ukraine), unnr. NMNHK specimen; (A, E) ventral view; (B, F) dorsal view; (C, G) anterior view; (D, H) lateral view. Abbreviations: ao, antrum olfactorium; alo, antrum pro lobo olfactorio; is, incisura semielliptical; ff, frontoparietal facet; lp, lateral processes; ls, lamina supraorbitalis; nf, nasal facet; onf, orbitonasal foramina; olf, olfactory foramina; pf, parasphenoid facet. Scale bars = 1 mm.

Fossil frogs from Western Siberia. (A–L, P, Q, X, AA, AB, A, AF) Ilia; (A–C) Bombina cf. bombina, Selety 1A, GIN 951/1001-AM06; (D, E) Bombina sp., Cherlak, GIN 1110/2001-AM13; (G–I) Pelobates sp., Selety 1A, GIN 951/1001-AM07; (J–L) Hyla gr. H. savignyi, Lezhanka 2 A, GIN 1130/1001-AM29; (P, Q) Bufo bufo, Olkhovka 1B, GIN 11 11/2001-AM03; (X) Bufotes cf. viridis, Pavlodar 1A, GIN 640/5001-AM01; (AA, AB) Pelophylax sp., Lezhanka 1, GIN 1129/1001-AM05; (AE, AF) Rana arvalis, Malyi Kalkaman 1, GIN 1107/1001-AM10; (A, D, G, J, P, U, AA, AE) in lateral view; (B, E, H, K, Q, AB) in proximal view; (C, F, I, L) in medial view; (M–O, R–T, Y, Z, AC, AD, AG, AH) scapulae of frogs; (M–O) Hyla gr. H. savignyi from Lezhanka 2 A, GIN 1130/1001-AM33; (R–T) Bufo bufo, Olkhovka 1C, GIN 1111/3001-AM01; (Y, Z) Bufotes cf. viridis, Pavlodar 1A, GIN 640/5001-AM63; (AC, AD) Pelophylax sp., Lezhanka 1, GIN 1129/1001-AM07; (AG, AH) Rana temporaria, Malyi Kalkaman 1, GIN 1107/1001-AM01; (M, R, Y, AC, AG) dorsal view; (N, S, Z, AD, AH) ventral view; (O, T) posterior view; (U, V) trunk vertebra of Bufo bufo, Olkhovka 1C, GIN 1111/3001-AM02; (U) anterior view; (V) lateral view; (W) urostyle of Bufo bufo, Olkhovka 1C, GIN 1111/3001-AM03, dorsal view. The arrows show the position of the angular fossa. Scale bars: A–Q, AA–AD, AG, AH = 1 mm, R–Z, AE, AF = 2 mm.

Alsophylax sp. from the localities Cherlak (A–P) and Mynsualmas-MSA 3 (Q). (A–E) Two left dentaries; (A–D) left dentary, GIN 1110/2001-RE11; (A) mirrored labial view; (B–D) lingual view; (C) symphyseal region in lingual view; (D) the same region in ventral view, both display the symphyseal groove; (E) posterior fragment of left dentary, GIN 1110/2001-RE12, lingual view; (F–M) five maxillae; (F, G) left maxilla, GIN 1110/2001-RE26, lingual view; (H) right maxilla, GIN 1110/2001-RE39, lingual view; (I, J) right, GIN 1110/2001-RE40 and (K, L) left maxillae, GIN 1110/2001-RE27; (I, K) lingual view; (J, L) labial view; (M) left maxilla, GIN 1110/2001-RE28, labial view; (N–P) cervical vertebra, GIN 1110/2001-RE44; (N) anterior; (O) left lateral; (P) posterior views; (Q) right dentary, unnr. GPIT specimen, lingual view. Abbreviations: dl, dental lamina; ds, dental shelf; fcpr, facial process of maxilla; fMx5, foramina for mandibular division of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve; hfr, haemal foramen; hl, horizontal lamella; lf, lacrimal facet; lg, longitudinal groove; lh, lamina horzontalis; mc, Meckelian canal; na, neural arch; nc, neural canal; nf, nasal facet; pfc, palatine facet; ph, paries horizontalis; prz, prezygapophysis; psz, postzygapophysis; pv, paries verticalis; pxp, premaxillary process; pyp, pterygapophysis; sac, opening of superior alveolar canal; sg, symphyseal groove; sf, splenial facet; tpr, transverse process.

Lizard and turtle remains from the Western Siberian localities. (A) Lacerta s.l. sp. 1, left dentary, Pavlodar 1A, GIN 640/5001-RE01, lingual view; (B) Lacerta s.l. sp. 2, right dentary, Pavlodar 1A, GIN 640/5001-RE34, lingual view; (C, D) Eremias sp., frontal, Pavlodar 2B, GIN 1108/2001-RE01; (C) dorsal view; (D) ventral views; (E) Emydoidea sp., fragment of right hypoplastron, GIN 948/2001-RE01, ventral view; (F, G) Emydoidea sp., left femur, GIN 948/2001-RE02; (F) cranial view; (G) ventral view. Scale bars: A, C, D = 2 mm; B = 1 mm; E–G = 1 cm.


Ivanov M., Vasilyan D., Böhme M., Zazhigin V.S. 2018: Miocene snakes from northeastern Kazakhstan: new data on the evolution of snake assemblages in Siberia. Historical Biology doi: 10.1080/08912963.2018.1446086

Vasilyan D., Zazhigin V.S., Böhme M., 2017: Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan. PeerJ 5:e3025, DOI 10.7717/peerj.3025