Database TInCAP


The Tübingen Interdisciplinary Corpus of Ambiguity Phenomena (TInCAP) is an interdisciplinary, multimodal collection of ambiguity phenomena in a single resource. At the moment, the collection comprises examples of ambiguity from linguistics, literary studies, rhetoric, media studies, theology, psychology, philosophy, and law.

TInCAP’s annotation scheme includes the classification of the relevance of ambiguity in production vs. perception, its strategic vs. non-strategic use and its classification on different levels of communication (e.g. the perspective of characters in a narrated world and the interpretation of readers). These criteria are complemented by further quantitative and qualitative classification options that use both interdisciplinary and discipline-specific terminology. Besides these meta-data relevant to the interdisciplinary research questions of the Research Training Group 1808, each entry provides bibliographic information and possible paraphrases of the ambiguous item. Thus, TInCAP allows researchers to investigate the common core of ambiguity and related phenomena as well as systematic differences across disciplines.

Project manager: Dr. Asya Achimova, Prof. Dr. Martin V. Butz
PhD students: Maren Ebert-Rohleder, Natascha Elxnath, Joel Klenk, Lea Hofmaier, Lorenz Geiger
Research assistant: Thalia Vollstedt

Former project leaders: Prof Dr. Susanne Winkler, PD Dr. Jutta Hartmann
PhD students formerly involved: Lisa Ebert, Miriam Lahrsow, Sarah Metzger, Corinna Sauter, Gesa Schole, Christian Stegemann-Philips, Raphael Titt, Wiltrud Wagner
Funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG) through the RTG 1808: Ambiguity - Production and Perception.

The TInCAP-tree

The schema represents relations between different phenomena that can be found in the database. It also serves as an annotation guide for the authors of TInCAP entries.


  • Asya Achimova, Maren Ebert-Rohleder, Natascha Elxnath, Lorenz Geiger, Lea Hofmaier, Joel Klenk, Thalia Vollstedt, Angelika Zirker (2021): “Ambiguity in Discourse: The Tübingen Interdisciplinary Corpus of Ambiguity Phenomena”. International Pragmatic Association Conference, Winterthur, 1 July 2021.

In December 2019, a first portion of the database was released into public use: 42 examples and a manual on how to use TInCAP. To access both the examples and the manual, please follow this link:

By now, even more than 400 entries are publicly available at: https://tincap.uni-tuebingen.de/

The website also contains an updated user manual which specifies what types of searches are possible in the corpus and how TInCAP entries can be cited in research.

At the moment, the complete database is only accessible for RTG members. If you are interested in getting access to the whole database, please write an email to: tincap@graduiertenkolleg.uni-tuebingen.de.

Please cite the following papers when referring to TInCAP:

  • Hartmann, Jutta, Lisa Ebert, Gesa Schole, Wiltrud Wagner & Susanne Winkler (under review): Annotating Ambiguity Across Disciplines: The Tübingen Interdisciplinary Corpus of Ambiguity Phenomena. In: Matthias Bauer & Angelika Zirker (Ed.): Strategies of Ambiguity.
  • Hartmann, Jutta, Corinna Sauter, Gesa Schole, Wiltrud Wagner, Peter Gietz & Susanne Winkler (2016): TInCAP – ein interdisziplinäres Korpus zu Ambiguitätsphänomenen. Konferenzabstract, Dhd 2016, Leipzig. dhd2016.de/boa.pdf