Raphael Titt

Proceedings opened: 31 March 2021


Biographical information

  • since October 2016: Research Assistant at the DFG Research Training Group 1808: Ambiguity - Production and Perception
  • 11/2015 – 04/2016: Research Assistant at the Division of Social and Economic Psychology, University of Tübingen
  • since October 2014: Associate of the „Institut für experimentelle Psychophysiologie GmbH“ (Institute of Experimental Psychophysiology)
  • 10/2014 – 09/2016: Studied Psychology, University of Tübingen (Master of Science)
  • 10/2013 – 07/2014: Research Assistant (theory of testing, test development und diagnostic) at University of Wuppertal
  • 04/2013 – 02/2015: Research Assistant at the Division of Experimental Economic Psychology at University of Wuppertal
  • 10/2011 – 09/2014: Studied Psychology at the University of Wuppertal (Bachelor of Science)


Research Interests

  • Affective processes during reading of Ambiguity
  • Psychophysiological detection of a reader’s state of mind
  • Ambiguity tolerance as a reader factor
  • Response Amplification in social judgments
  • Mixed mood and judgements
  • Meaning distribution and properties in lexical ambiguity



"Affective reaction in the reception of ambiguity in literature and everyday language as a mediator for the evaluation of contents and producers by recipients" (working title)

There is some evidence that ambiguity tolerance can be interpreted as a personality variable and that ambiguity-intolerant persons experience ambiguous stimuli as threatening or unpleasant (Budner, 1962). The presence of a moderation of the affective response by the ambiguity tolerance is to be examined empirically in the context of the lexical ambiguity. In addition to self-referential, implicit (implicit association tests) and psychophysiological (heart rate and electrodermal activity) procedures are used to measure the response at the reception. The mental state experienced by ambiguity-intolerant persons on reception of ambiguity has potentially similarities with the state of experience of attitude ambivalence, which can lead to a response amplification (Bell & Esses, 1997; Katz, 1981). It is postulated that ambiguity-intolerant (vs. ambiguity-tolerant) persons after reception of ambiguity comes to more extreme judgements about the author or the ambiguous content and that the direction of the judgments depends on presented cues. Moreover we postulate that this is especially the case for "interpretative" ambiguity but also for lexical, referential / syntactic ambiguity.

The two central research questions to be clarified within the framework of the doctoral thesis are:

  1. Which affective responses in the case of ambiguity can be identified as a function of the ambiguity tolerance of recipients?
  2. What are the consequences of the affective response to the reception of ambiguous content for the attitude towards the content and the producer?

In order to answer the question it is necessary to establish a questionnaire to measure the tolerance of ambiguity which has a closer understanding of ambiguity. The existing questionnaires on ambiguity tolerance indirectly include vagueness, novelty and uncertainty tolerance.

Furthermore, a corpus of the lexical ambiguity is to be created by evaluating, apart from the words (homonyms and polysemes), the individual meanings regarding valence, arousal and abstractness, and the distribution of the meanings. Thus, a potential confounding of these variables in psycholinguistic experiments can be counteracted. Furthermore, this corpus allows the investigation of the effects of ambiguous words, which can trigger ambivalence due to opposite valences of the meanings.



  • Krajewski, J., Schnieder, S., Monschau, C., Titt, R., Sommer, D., & Golz, M. (2016). "Large Sleepy Reading Corpus (LSRC): Applying Read Speech for Detecting Sleepiness". In: Information Techology Society within VDE (ITG) (Eds.) ITG-Fachbericht 267: Speech Communication. Poster presented at the 12. ITG Symposium, Paderborn, Germany. Berlin: VDE, 250.



  • Titt, R., Seiler, K., Krajewski, J., Wieland, R. & Schnieder, S. „Erholung? Kann ich mir nicht erlauben“ – Konzeptualisierung und empirische Validierung der Erholungskompetenz-Skala (EKS). Paper at the 18. Fachtagung der GWPs, Februar 2014, Köln.
  • Krajewski, J., Hammes M., Sauerland, M., Titt, R. & Schnieder, S. „Wir wollen doch nur ihr Bestes!“ – Strategien zur überdramatisierenden Quantifizierung von Risiken in der wirtschaftspsychologischen Forschung. Paper at the 18. Fachtagung der GWPs, Februar 2014, Köln.
  • Roelen, D., Schnieder, S., Stappert, S., Titt, R., Strobl, L. & Krajewski, J. (2014). Intense Blue Light Improves Sleep Quality and Well-Being within Daily Life Settings. Symposium at the 56. TeaP Conference, April 2014, Gießen.
  • Ungruh, S., Schuller, B., Eyben, F., Schnieder, S., Titt, R. & Krajewski J. (2014). Analysing Keyboard Strokes and Mouse Movement Pattern to Detect Sleepiness at Regular PC-Work. Vortrag auf dem 49. DGPs Kongress, September 2014, Bochum.